Most studies of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer pain are of low quality in terms of scientific evidence. Studies of massage therapy have produced mixed results, but overall show some temporary benefit for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression and a very low risk of harm, unless the patient is at risk for bleeding disorders.[34][35] There is weak evidence for a modest benefit from hypnosis, supportive psychotherapy and cognitive therapy. Results about Reiki and touch therapy were inconclusive. The most studied such treatment, acupuncture, has demonstrated no benefit as an adjunct analgesic in cancer pain. The evidence for music therapy is equivocal, and some herbal interventions such as PC-SPES, mistletoe, and saw palmetto are known to be toxic to some cancer patients. The most promising evidence, though still weak, is for mind–body interventions such as biofeedback and relaxation techniques.[36]
Herbal medicine is also a mainstay of naturopathic physicians (NDs or NMDs) who use natural approaches to promote wellness and treat disease. Naturopaths typically cannot prescribe pharmaceuticals, and not all practitioners have attended a four-year naturopathic medical school, so prospective patients should ask about training. You can locate a practitioner via the website of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. While some MDs and DOs (osteopathic physicians) are learning about herbs and other natural remedies, it is unlikely that herbal medicine was included in their formal training.
Survey data about how many cancer patients use alternative or complementary therapies vary from nation to nation as well as from region to region. A 2000 study published by the European Journal of Cancer evaluated a sample of 1023 women from a British cancer registry suffering from breast cancer and found that 22.4% had consulted with a practitioner of complementary therapies in the previous twelve months. The study concluded that the patients had spent many thousands of pounds on such measures and that use "of practitioners of complementary therapies following diagnosis is a significant and possibly growing phenomenon".[12]
Recent research has suggested that probiotic supplementation may be able to stop tumor growth. (12) And this makes perfect sense because 80 percent of your immune system is housed in your gut. In addition to supporting your immunity to disease, research has also shown that probiotics can improve digestive function and mineral absorption as well as aid in healing leaky gut, which all contribute to helping prevent cancer!
Yes. When taking medication, you should investigate possible interactions with an herbal remedy you may be considering. Be careful about mixing herbs and drugs that have similar actions. For example, it may not be a good idea to mix anticoagulant drugs with ginkgo, a natural blood thinner; the herb valerian, a sedative, probably shouldn’t be mixed with prescription sleeping pills. Similarly, avoid mixing herbs and drugs that have opposite actions. Other agents may alter the way a medication is handled by the body. For example, St. John’s wort, a natural remedy for depression, may reduce the effectiveness of some drugs by causing them to be metabolized too quickly. When in doubt, check with your pharmacist about herb/drug interactions. In addition, herbs that can thin blood, such as dong quai, feverfew, supplemental garlic, and ginger could cause problems if taken before surgery as could herbs such as ginseng and licorice root that affect heart rate and blood pressure. Sedative herbs like kava and valerian may increase the effects of anesthesia. It is best to stop taking any of these herbs at least 10-14 days before surgery, and be sure to tell your physician that you’ve been taking them.

A dry, hacking, cough is another story. This is one we do want to stop. It can be caused by allergies, dry air, a random tickle at the back of your throat that won’t go away, the aftermath of a cold, being in a dusty environment, etc. etc. For these we turn to demulcents, ingredients that soothe irritated mucous membranes and remove the irritant triggering the cough. Studies conducted in 2004 found that the main ingredients in cough syrup (dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine) have the same effectiveness in treating coughs as a placebo ingredient. Instead of turning to chemical solutions for every minor ailment, try some home remedies instead. They are not only better for you, but they taste a whole lot better than most cough syrup too!
Michael B. Schachter, M.D. of the Schachter Center in Suffren has had good responses with breast, lung, colon, lymphoma, and Hodgkin's. He also treats AIDS, neurological problems, and candida. He uses detoxification, EDTA & DMPS chelation, laetrile, DMSO, coenzyme Q10, hydrogen peroxide, shark cartilage, hydrazine sulfate, biomagnetic, and homeopathy. (845) 368-4700
In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.[4] Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.
^ Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; Mohammadi, M.; Ohadinia, S.; Jamshidi, A. H.; Khani, M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 28 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x. PMID 12605619.
Foundation for Cartilage and Immunology Research uses bovine cartilage is used as a first-line therapy where other modalities are of little or no value, such as cancer of the pancreas, adenocarcinoma of the lung, squamous cell cancer of the pharynx, lung, larynx (metastatic), renal cell carcinoma, and others. It is used as a reserve therapy in malignancies for which there are standard therapies of recognized effectiveness, such as breast, gastrointestinal, or prostate cancer. Phone: (914)763-6195.

It’s not just easy, but also tasty to add spices and herbs that lower blood sugar to your diet. Most of these can be used in everyday recipes. If you are looking for inspiration on how to start cooking with these, try out these recipes from our recipe section – Mushroom-stuffed Turkey, Stuffed Peppers, Apple Cinnamon Breakfast Pizza, Courgette Carrot & Tomato Frittata, Moussaka, Vegetable Stir Fry, and Roasted Butternut Squash
New Hope Medical Center in Scottsdale uses alternative methods to treat immune deficient illnesses such as cancer. Dr. Fredda Branyon, Director, and Dr. Mario Galaburri, NMD, agree that a physician should never just treat the symptoms of the illness, but treat the individual as a whole. Dr. Ronald Peters, MD, MPH, has also joined the New Hope team, reinforcing New Hope Medical Center’s commitment to offer its patients an aggressive, non-invasive approach to the treatment of cancer and other auto-immune diseases. Dr. Peters has 15 years of experience in integrative medicine and nutritional biochemistry, with special emphasis in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease. Phone (480) 556-0182, toll free: (888) 518-7788, or go to their website at http://www.newhopemedicalcenter.com/.
Then, around nine years after her first diagnosis, a terrible thing happened: She was diagnosed with cancer again. At that point, I had experience working in the natural health field, so when I flew home, we prayed together and talked about the best healthcare strategy.  She decided to pursue natural cancer treatments by focusing on diet and lifestyle changes.
The dandelion was in use as far back as ancient China for it’s medicinal properties. It was used as a potent diuretic and detoxifying herb. Other common uses of this plant were to treat breast inflammation, digestive disorders, appendicitis and to stimulate milk flow. European herbalists used dandelion as a remedy for eye problems, diarrhea, diabetes and fever.
When we realize that fear is controlling us, we can turn away from the grip of conventional cancer treatment and make other choices. Some people turn to alternative cancer treatments after it has become clear that conventional treatments are not working. Other people just skip conventional treatments altogether and go directly to safer alternatives.
None of them worked for me my cough is like a deep lung type of cough it’s a dry cough but I cough so much that I literally throw up so yeah if anybody else in the comments have any other idea please reply I am 11 and need to get rid of This cough immediately I have been hulusinating feeling dizzy every time I cough sometimes I fined it hard to breath and than I get bad asthma attacks as well as I have a giant head cold wich is making everything worse so please help me out
All about coughs and their causes Coughing is the fast expulsion of air from the lungs when the vocal chords are open, which gives a cough its characteristic sound. Find out here about why we cough, how we contract a cough, and when it might be wise to visit the doctor. Also, we give details on home remedies that might ease the symptoms of a cough. Read now

It seems that every day modern medicine is telling us to take more prescription drugs. Yes, there’s a drug for everything. While some drugs are very useful and do save lives, there is a limit to how many of these the body can withstand. I believe that taking herbs whenever possible is the better and more healthy way to go. There are many herbs that work as well or better than prescription medicine for certain conditions. An example would be taking ginger rather than Dramamine. In scientific tests, ginger was found to be more effective in preventing motion sickness.
To treat colds or coughs you can make a nice ginger tea by cutting about one inch of ginger root into small pieces and adding to two cups of water and simmering for fifteen minutes. Ginger can also be found in capsules like a lot of other herbs and is a great way to get your dose of ginger for the day. Extracts are also available but are generally used only to treat osteoarthritis. 

NCI and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) are currently sponsoring or cosponsoring various clinical trials that test CAM treatments and therapies in people. Some study the effects of complementary approaches used in addition to conventional treatments, and some compare alternative therapies with conventional treatments. Find all cancer CAM clinical trials.

I use R.C. in cold mist disfuser as well on bottoms of feet, chest and neck. I would take a detox bath (1c if espon salt mix with 1table spoon of bakingsoda and 5 drops of ginger oil 10 drops of lavender add 1 cup of ACV put in hottest water inyub you can be in stsy in at least 26 min. R.C. has four types of Eucalyptus in it plus myrtle,pine, lavender, cypress, spruce,peppermint, marjoram. It is sold by youngliving for under $11 love it!
Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include digoxin, from digitalis; capsaicine, from chili; and aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow. The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments.
Bacopa has been used as an effective brain tonic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for thousands of years in India. It is beneficial to long and short term memory. The plant’s saponins and bacosides have a positive effect on the brain’s neurotransmitters and can help one to think faster. Bacopa is now being studied as a possible treatment for ADHD, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Bacopa is often used to treat depression, anxiety asthma, allergies and bronchitis. It also possess some anti-inflammatory properties.
Bacopa has been used as an effective brain tonic in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for thousands of years in India. It is beneficial to long and short term memory. The plant’s saponins and bacosides have a positive effect on the brain’s neurotransmitters and can help one to think faster. Bacopa is now being studied as a possible treatment for ADHD, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Bacopa is often used to treat depression, anxiety asthma, allergies and bronchitis. It also possess some anti-inflammatory properties.
Alternative treatments for cancer have a history of curing cancer and it is this fact that big pharma wants to hide from the American public. Historically, many successful approaches have been developed for curing cancer. Some involve the use of herbs, minerals, oils, aromatic essential oils, dietary modifications, enemas, and the use of various types of equipment that destroy cancer cells while stimulating a natural immune response to cancer.
American ginseng is an adaptogen. An adaptogen is a substance which is good for the body in general and protects against stress of all types. This type of ginseng has been used to strengthen the immune system, increase strength and stamina, treat digestive disorders, treat diabetes, treat ADHD and as a general tonic for wellness. Many people believe that the best American ginseng comes from the state of Wisconsin in the U.S. American ginseng is considered a cooling ginseng, where Korean ginseng has a more warming effect on the body.
In 1952, Dr. Johanna Budwig was the German Government’s Senior Expert on lipids and pharmacology and was considered one of the leading global authorities on fats and oils. During her research, she discovered that many of the conventional processed fats and hydrogenated oils were destroying the membranes of our cells, and this caused diseased cells and toxicity.
Cannabis Cannabis Used worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer's and dementia, ADHD, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn's disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others.[44]
Valerian is another great herb that's used as a sedative. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) soothes anxiety and is often used as a sleep aid. Commonly doubled up with California poppy, it makes a powerful, but gentle sedative. Valerian can interact with medications and shouldn't be used without first checking with your doctor. Pregnant and lactating women shouldn't take valerian.
Champlain Center for Natural Medicine in Shelburne, VT is run by Bill Warnock, ND, Lorilee Schoenbeck, ND, and Simon Frishkoff, ND. They treat cancer - all stages, multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS, arthritis, Wilson's Syndrome and chronic fatigue. They may use a variety of approaches - homeopathic, anthroposophical, acupuncture, botanic, nutritional, bee venom therapies, and mistletoe. They work with patients who want alternative or integrated approaches to help their immune system while doing or after chemo or other conventional approaches. http://www.vtnaturalmed.com (802) 985-8250
All about coughs and their causes Coughing is the fast expulsion of air from the lungs when the vocal chords are open, which gives a cough its characteristic sound. Find out here about why we cough, how we contract a cough, and when it might be wise to visit the doctor. Also, we give details on home remedies that might ease the symptoms of a cough. Read now
The ketogenic diet is a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate diet. When it is used as a cancer treatment, it is called a restricted ketogenic diet. The restriction means that the number of calories is limited and the amount of carbohydrate is extremely low. This diet brings about important changes in the ways cells in the body are nourished.
My wife and I were waiting in one of the examination rooms that were used by the oncology department. It was in a very old part of the university medical complex and the walls between the examination rooms were not soundproof. We could hear a muffled conversation from the next room. Then there was a sudden increase in volume as the patient began to yell at the doctor. It has now been over eighteen years since I heard this man’s statement, and I doubt that I will ever forget it.
Each culture independently discovered the herbs in there area that were beneficial to health and could treat specific health conditions. They built their healing herbs list over centuries of trial and error. An example would be a herb for increased energy from China would be ginseng. In Peru, they used maca root. In the United States they consumed bee pollen. And in India they used ashwagandha. Now, with the speed of the internet, we can learn about and buy any herb from any one of these powerful healing systems.
Dill seeds and essential oils are used in Ayurvedic medicine. Dill seeds (Anethum graveolens L) are used to treat flatulence and stimulate appetite. Dill is also used as a diuretic. It can be given as a digestive tonic to help soothe indigestion. Mothers use dill essential oil for babies suffering from colic. Halitosis (bad breath) is treated by chewing dill seeds.
Since herbs are food, there are generally no dangerous side effects of using them in there natural state. If they are herbal extracts, they are more potent then the raw herb and should be taken in smaller doses to get the desired effects. Some herbs have a cleansing and detoxifying effect on the body and can cause diarrhea and nausea if taken in large quantity. Don’t worry. It’s good to cleanse the body of toxins. Just start off slowly and you’ll get the best long term results.
Viburnum tinus Laurustinus V. tinus has medicinal properties. The active ingredients are viburnin (a substance or more probably a mixture of compounds) and tannins. Tannins can cause stomach upset. The leaves when infused have antipyretic properties. The fruits have been used as purgatives against constipation. The tincture has been used lately in herbal medicine as a remedy for depression. The plant also contains iridoid glucosides.[192]
​Skullcap is yet another herb of the mint family, the first medicinal use of skullcap can probably be found by looking into the lives of the Native Americans. The roots of skullcap were used as a remedy for things such as diarrhea and kidney problems. It wasn't until the settlers came that skullcap gained a reputation of being a sedative. They used it for a whole host of problems including fevers, anxious nerves, and even rabies. Today skullcap is most often found being used as a mild relaxant to treat anxiety, insomnia, tension headaches and fibromyalgia. When it comes to growing skullcap for your herb garden you have to realize that there is the North American variety and the Chinese type as well. The Chinese skullcap is the much hardier variety and well grow well in both warm or cool climates and handles drought very well. The North American skullcap however requires a very rich, moist and slightly acidic soil, so conditions have to be more precise in order to get the North American variety to grow. 

Dr. Brian Peskin also starts with the research of Dr. Otto Warburg on cellular respiration. Dr. Peskin uses the principles of the ketogenic diet in his protocol for cancer treatment. His therapy is a high fat low carbohydrate diet that includes three other aspects. He has found that the standard American diet is highly deficient  in certain “parent oils,” which are needed in small amounts to build healthy cells and to provide for proper cell respiration. The absence of healthy oils damages cellular respiration and contributes to cancer formation. He has developed a blend of oils, which  provide what the body needs to provide for proper cellular respiration. Also, most Americans are deficient in certain minerals. He uses supplements to provide for these deficiencies. Finally he uses a combination of herbs that are similar to Essiac Tea (described later) to assist with cleansing and detoxification of the body. He presents thoroughly researched evidence that fish oil may not be the best  source of omega 3 oils. This makes his research somewhat controversial for some people. His book, The Hidden Story of Cancer, provides extensive scientific documentation of all his claims. Don’t neglect to read the appendices.
Anyone can claim to be an herbalist, so be sure to look for someone with extensive training. Practitioners of both Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine rely on herbs for treatment. You may be able to find a knowledgeable practitioner through the American Herbalist Guild. Keep in mind that professional herbalists who advise clients on the use of medicinal herbs are typically not licensed to diagnose or treat disease.
Using a steam bath is a fantastic way to loosen congestion and hydrate a dry respiratory system, making this a useful home remedy for both dry coughs and chesty coughs. Add a few drops of essential oils like tea tree or eucalyptus to maximise these effects. Eucalyptus, along with peppermint, juniper, caraway and fennel oils can be found in our own Po-Ho oil.

So if the cells have a God given wisdom to transform into cancer stem cells to adapt to a toxic environment then how can you cause the cancer stem cells to revert back into normal cells? Is this done by adding more toxins like chemotherapy or by removing the toxic load and upgrading the performance of all systems, glands and organs? The answer is obvious. Cancer cells are not some foreign invader that should be killed.
Allen Homoeo & Herbal products Ltd (Allen Hyderabad) is a GMP certified homeopathic manufacturer since 1978. It produces a wide range of classical homeopathic medicines which include Mother tinctures, dilutions, Homoeo Triaturations, Bio-Chemic & Bio-Combination Tablets and also speciality homeopathic medicines like tonics, drops, tablets and ointments. Also homeopathic skin and beauty care products and… Continue reading Allen Homeopathy Hyderabad – Complete Homeopathic Product List
Carbohydrates break down into glucose in the small intestine which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Spices like Cayenne pepper stimulate glucose absorption from the small intestine, according to a Hungarian study published in the March 18, 2006 issue of the “European Journal of Pharmacology”. Add a bit to cayenne pepper to your home-cooked meals to stabilize your blood sugar levels naturally. The entire pepper family – including bell peppers, chilli peppers, and cayenne are known to help fight inflammation. That is why they are prized in several Asian culinary traditions. Use Cayenne wisely to get its anti-inflammatory benefits as well.
An aromatic herb that is used commonly to add flavor and aroma to meats and soups, Rosemary also helps normalize blood sugar levels naturally. It promotes weight loss as well, which is a double boon for many diabetics who struggle with weight issues. A research conducted in Jordan to study the effects of rosemary on lipid profile in diabetic rats proved that rosemary has no significant influence on serum glucose level and lipid profile of normal rats. But when rosemary extract was administered to diabetic rats for 4 weeks, their blood sugar levels reduced by 20%, cholesterol levels by 22%, triglyceride levels by 24%, and LDL by 27% while HDL increased by 18% respectively. The study was published in African Journal of Plant Science Vol. 6 in 2012.
A popular spice used in Indian cooking, and the main ingredient of ‘curry’ that has taken the world by storm, turmeric has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that all come together to help diabetics manage more stable blood sugar levels. It helps boost immunity and prevent infections that diabetics are often vulnerable to. Studies conducted on rats prove that curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, is effective in reducing plasma glucose level and HbA1C as well as improving the lipid profile. Many diabetics also suffer from arthritis, since the sugar laden blood and inflammatory processes typical to diabetes often damage joints. Turmeric, with its anti-inflammatory abilities, also helps with these joint pains.
I have been suffering from this annoying dry cough for nearly 4 months. It may be because of post nasal drip. Had tried bronchial dilator, anti histamines and antibiotic too but cough comes back again. I regularly drink ginger tea and had tried honey as well but nothing helped. I also drink lots of water. I don’t cough all the time but when it comes it doesn’t go easily.
This plant’s Hindi name translates as “sugar destroyer,” and the plant is said to reduce the ability to detect sweetness. It’s regarded as one of the most powerful herbs for blood-sugar control. It may work by boosting the activity of enzymes that help cells use glucose or by stimulating the production of insulin. Though it hasn’t been studied ­extensively, it’s not known to cause serious side effects. Try these healthy habits to prevent diabetes.
Ashwagandha is sometimes called “Indian ginseng” as it has many similar health properties. This herb is very popular in the Ayurvedic system of health in India. It is considered an adaptogen. It is commonly used to relieve stress and strengthen the immune system. It has the ability to strengthen the body and increase endurance. This herb has been used in India for over 3,000 years as a rejuvenator. The seeds of this plant are thought to have a diuretic effect, while the leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative properties. The chemical components of the root have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune strengthening and sedative properties. This is a great herb for athletes and active people that need to increase their energy, strength and stamina.
Gerson Therapy is a full microbiome shifting mostly nutritional therapy aimed at revitalizing the body’s own healing potential by removing as much of the accumulated toxic burdens as possible and increasing oxygenation to all affected cells. The protocol involves juicing, a strict alkaline dietary regimen, specific supplements and daily coffee enemas.
As you might expect from an herb like basil it has a pretty profound effect on the digestive system and therefore works great for treating things like indigestion, bloating, and gas. When you're using basil to treat these problems I'd recommend taking around 2-4 grams per day taken orally. Basil can also be used to ease the effects of insect bites and stings, simply crush the leaves so the juices can be applied to the affected area. To help from getting bit or stung in the first place you can rub the juice on the skin in the same manner, basil works rather well as an insecticide so this should help repel the bugs.
Chickweed is probably best know for it's ability to relieve itchy skin, and is used a lot in treatments for eczema, nettle rash, and bug bites. A simple chickweed slave can be made by mixing olive oil, chickweed, beeswax, and lavender for fragrance. Finely chop the chickweed and let it sit and dry for about 24 hours. Then you'll want to mix an equal amount of the chickweed and olive oil and blend the mixture for around 20 seconds. Next place the mixture in a metal dish suspended above another metal dish with water in it. Heat the water in the bottom dish to a boil, don't let the bottom of the top dish touch the water this could allow the mixture to get too hot. Stir the mixture frequently then strain through a cheese cloth. Then using the same method melt the beeswax and add the infused oil, stir to combine and then remove. The salve can be put in a jar for later use.
Cancer patients who choose alternative treatments instead of conventional treatments believe themselves less likely to die than patients who choose only conventional treatments.[15] They feel a greater sense of control over their destinies, and report less anxiety and depression.[15] They are more likely to engage in benefit finding, which is the psychological process of adapting to a traumatic situation and deciding that the trauma was valuable, usually because of perceived personal and spiritual growth during the crisis.[16]
Hi. My name is Miranda Barros. Welcome to our website. My husband Bill and I are the editors here at HerbsList.net. We’ve been taking herbal supplements for over 25 years and have learned a lot about them through trial and error. Now, we’d like to share our passion for herbs with you, and hopefully pass on a little useful information along the way. We truly hope this information about herbs will help you discover the wonderful health benefits that are available to you right now. Thank’s for reading and please set a bookmark, as we’ll be adding more information to our herbs list on a regular basis.
Iscador is prepared by fermenting an aqueous extract of the whole mistletoe plant with Lactobacillus plantarum. Mistletoe is one of the most widely studied complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for cancer. Mistletoe extracts have been evaluated in numerous clinical studies and improvements in survival, quality of life, and/or stimulation of the immune system have been frequently reported.
Researchers found that the ketogenic diet significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While hyperbolic oxygen therapy by itself did not influence cancer progression, when it was combined with the ketogenic diet, it produced a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and a 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls.
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