Dr. Tullio Simoncini is an Italian physician who has found that plain old baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) has a powerful ability to eradicate cancer from the digestive tract and other parts of the body. His research shows that tumors are mostly fungal in nature, and the baking soda is particularly effective for removing cancer. His therapy injects the baking soda directly into the cancer cells. In spite of his very impressive body of clinical research and success rates for over 20 years, he has been largely ostracized in Italy.
In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.[4] Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.
Ashwagandha is sometimes called “Indian ginseng” as it has many similar health properties. This herb is very popular in the Ayurvedic system of health in India. It is considered an adaptogen. It is commonly used to relieve stress and strengthen the immune system. It has the ability to strengthen the body and increase endurance. This herb has been used in India for over 3,000 years as a rejuvenator. The seeds of this plant are thought to have a diuretic effect, while the leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative properties. The chemical components of the root have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune strengthening and sedative properties. This is a great herb for athletes and active people that need to increase their energy, strength and stamina.
​The next herb on our list is chamomile, this is another great herb with a wide array of uses. The Spanish name for this herb is manzanilla which simply means "little apple" it's no surprise that the Spanish people gave it this name. When the leaves and petals are bruised they give off a very distinct apple aroma. There are two main species chamomile German chamomile and Roman or English chamomile, they're all similar in there medicinal effects but the Roman or English species have a more pronounced aroma than the German variety. Both varieties are relatively easy to grow from seed, in fact if they are left to seed on there own you'll find that they have grown back the next spring.  

Acne Adaptogen Aid Digestion Allergies Anti-Aging Anti-bacterial Antioxidant Anxiety Arthritis Articles Asthma Blood Circulation Blood Pressure Blood Sugar Cancer Cholesterol Common Cold Concentration Constipation Depression Diabetes Diarrhea Energy Fatigue Flu Free Radicals Ginseng High Cholesterol Immune System Increase stamina Indigestion Inflammation Insomnia Liver Longevity Memory Menopause Nervous System Psoriasis Skin Conditions Stress Tumors Ulcers Weight Loss Wound Healing
My mom started following an all-natural plan that included vegetable juicing, probiotic foods, immune-boosting supplements, stress reducing techniques and prayer.  And after only four months, the tumors on her lungs had shrunk significantly and one year after that, she was again diagnosed as being “cancer-free” and healthy. It’s now been 10 years and my mom recently turned 60 years old — and she is in the best shape of her life, regularly water skiing, running and still going strong.
​The most common uses for Aloe would have to be for treating burns, wounds and skin conditions. This along with the ease of growing an Aloe plant make it an excellent choice to have in your herbal first aid kit. The real magic of the Aloe Vera plant comes from the gel inside the leaves, to extract this all you need to do is take a knife and take off the thick skin on the outside of the leaf. The part you're after is the clear inner gel, sometimes referred to as the inner fillet, because you're sort of filleting the leaf. When used on minor burns you should run the affected area under cool water for about ten minutes before applying the Aloe gel. Continue to apply the gel several times per day for both burns and skin conditions. If you're using the Aloe gel for lowering blood sugar levels take about one tablespoon daily (be sure to use an aloe gel that's free of aloin if taking orally).
When we realize that fear is controlling us, we can turn away from the grip of conventional cancer treatment and make other choices. Some people turn to alternative cancer treatments after it has become clear that conventional treatments are not working. Other people just skip conventional treatments altogether and go directly to safer alternatives.

Multiple scientific reports suggest that Iscador augments the immune response. Iscador has been shown to increase natural-killer cell function helping the body’s own surveillance system in attacking unwanted cancer cells. It also stimulates antibodies to cancer cells which helps recognize the cancer cells as foreign in order to destroy these cells. 

​Even though it's more of a spice than an herb I couldn't help but include turmeric in the list of herbs. Turmeric has a long standing tradition in Hinduism and is associated with purity and cleansing. Still today Hindu brides will take part in a ceremony where they will cover their faces in a turmeric paste before taking their vows. Marco Polo once described turmeric as being a vegetable with qualities resembling that of saffron. It wasn't until about the mid 20th century when people from the west started to recognize turmeric for its medicinal benefits. Curcumin is the main ingredient found in turmeric that gives it these benefits, the concentration of curcumin in turmeric is around 3% this is why it is more beneficial to take an extract of turmeric.

All about coughs and their causes Coughing is the fast expulsion of air from the lungs when the vocal chords are open, which gives a cough its characteristic sound. Find out here about why we cough, how we contract a cough, and when it might be wise to visit the doctor. Also, we give details on home remedies that might ease the symptoms of a cough. Read now
We live in a world of cancer causing products. They are in conventional food, the water, the air, in our clothing, our automobiles, our homes, the office equipment we use, and in the phones that we use for communication. There is great wisdom in taking reasonable precaution against the factors that can contribute to cancer formation. Sometimes an individual factor may not be a serious risk, but when many factors are combined, they could put a high level of stress on your body and open the door for cancer growth. There are many other factors that could contribute to cancer growth, but the items listed here will be a good starting point.
​Chickweed is an annual herb that can be found all over the world in temperate as well as arctic regions. An interesting characteristic of the chickweed is that it sleeps, at night the leaves will fold up covering the young buds and shoots. Chickweed is also known for being quite a nutritious herb and is a good choice to include in your salads.  The whole plant can be used both dried and fresh in herbal remedies. Let's have a look at the main medicinal uses now that this herb is best know for.

Carbohydrates break down into glucose in the small intestine which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Spices like Cayenne pepper stimulate glucose absorption from the small intestine, according to a Hungarian study published in the March 18, 2006 issue of the “European Journal of Pharmacology”. Add a bit to cayenne pepper to your home-cooked meals to stabilize your blood sugar levels naturally. The entire pepper family – including bell peppers, chilli peppers, and cayenne are known to help fight inflammation. That is why they are prized in several Asian culinary traditions. Use Cayenne wisely to get its anti-inflammatory benefits as well.


Multiple scientific reports suggest that Iscador augments the immune response. Iscador has been shown to increase natural-killer cell function helping the body’s own surveillance system in attacking unwanted cancer cells. It also stimulates antibodies to cancer cells which helps recognize the cancer cells as foreign in order to destroy these cells.

Gerson Healing Centers of America has an office in San Diego, but the main clinic is in Mexico at Oasis of Hope. The diet is used to treat autoimmune disorders, CHD, and Type II diabetes using Gerson's Diet, Issel's treatments, and Danopoulos' protocols. They have clinics in Mexico, Canada, and the UK. See our organizations page. 1-888-4-GERSON www.gerson.org.


"The oil serves many medicinal purposes, but one of the best-documented uses is for relaxation. The oil has a calming effect on people, and can be used to help induce sleep, ease frayed nerves, and promote a general sense of calmness and well being. It is great for those with nervousness or anxiety problems. Aside from having mental calming properties, chamomile is also good at relaxing sore muscles and tight joints.
Recent research has suggested that probiotic supplementation may be able to stop tumor growth. (12) And this makes perfect sense because 80 percent of your immune system is housed in your gut. In addition to supporting your immunity to disease, research has also shown that probiotics can improve digestive function and mineral absorption as well as aid in healing leaky gut, which all contribute to helping prevent cancer!
To treat colds or coughs you can make a nice ginger tea by cutting about one inch of ginger root into small pieces and adding to two cups of water and simmering for fifteen minutes. Ginger can also be found in capsules like a lot of other herbs and is a great way to get your dose of ginger for the day. Extracts are also available but are generally used only to treat osteoarthritis.

Ashwagandha is sometimes called “Indian ginseng” as it has many similar health properties. This herb is very popular in the Ayurvedic system of health in India. It is considered an adaptogen. It is commonly used to relieve stress and strengthen the immune system. It has the ability to strengthen the body and increase endurance. This herb has been used in India for over 3,000 years as a rejuvenator. The seeds of this plant are thought to have a diuretic effect, while the leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative properties. The chemical components of the root have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune strengthening and sedative properties. This is a great herb for athletes and active people that need to increase their energy, strength and stamina.
Simply Healing, run by Alex Strande, N.D., PhD is in Irvine. Alex is a naturopath and PhD microbiologist who has been practicing for over 20 years. He specializes in chronic fatigue, pain, depression and anxieties, difficult and rare conditions. If you've tried everything and you're still not getting well, call Simply Healing at 949-553-1882. www.simplyhealingclinic.com.
Everyday Roots is intended for informational purposes only. Our site contains general information about medical conditions and treatments, and provides information and ideas for, but not limited to, natural and home remedies. Everyday Roots makes no claims that anything presented is true, accurate, proven, and/or not harmful to your health or wellbeing. Our website is not and does not claim to be written, edited, or researched by a health care professional. Any information on or associated with this website should NOT be considered a substitute for medical advice from a healthcare professional. If you are experiencing any form of health problem, always consult a doctor before attempting any treatment on your own. Everyday Roots will not be held liable or responsible in any way for any harm, injury, illness, or death that may result from the use of its content or anything related to it. Viewers assume all risk and liability associated with the use of the content on our site, and must agree to our terms and conditions.
Chickweed is probably best know for it's ability to relieve itchy skin, and is used a lot in treatments for eczema, nettle rash, and bug bites. A simple chickweed slave can be made by mixing olive oil, chickweed, beeswax, and lavender for fragrance. Finely chop the chickweed and let it sit and dry for about 24 hours. Then you'll want to mix an equal amount of the chickweed and olive oil and blend the mixture for around 20 seconds. Next place the mixture in a metal dish suspended above another metal dish with water in it. Heat the water in the bottom dish to a boil, don't let the bottom of the top dish touch the water this could allow the mixture to get too hot. Stir the mixture frequently then strain through a cheese cloth. Then using the same method melt the beeswax and add the infused oil, stir to combine and then remove. The salve can be put in a jar for later use.
Using a steam bath is a fantastic way to loosen congestion and hydrate a dry respiratory system, making this a useful home remedy for both dry coughs and chesty coughs. Add a few drops of essential oils like tea tree or eucalyptus to maximise these effects. Eucalyptus, along with peppermint, juniper, caraway and fennel oils can be found in our own Po-Ho oil.
Burdock was used by the ancient Greeks to treat wounds and infections. This herb is loaded with beneficial vitamins and minerals and is often used to treat liver and digestive problems, urinary tract infections, ulcers, eczema, psoriasis and to boost energy and stamina. It has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties and makes a good immune system booster and blood purifier.
​Skullcap is yet another herb of the mint family, the first medicinal use of skullcap can probably be found by looking into the lives of the Native Americans. The roots of skullcap were used as a remedy for things such as diarrhea and kidney problems. It wasn't until the settlers came that skullcap gained a reputation of being a sedative. They used it for a whole host of problems including fevers, anxious nerves, and even rabies. Today skullcap is most often found being used as a mild relaxant to treat anxiety, insomnia, tension headaches and fibromyalgia. When it comes to growing skullcap for your herb garden you have to realize that there is the North American variety and the Chinese type as well. The Chinese skullcap is the much hardier variety and well grow well in both warm or cool climates and handles drought very well. The North American skullcap however requires a very rich, moist and slightly acidic soil, so conditions have to be more precise in order to get the North American variety to grow. 
Some times when capsaicin is applied to the skin it can cause a burning, stinging, redness and even a rash. Most often this rash is more irritation than anything and well get better after the first few uses. If the rash persists though you should stop the use as you may have an allergy towards capsaicin. Also capsaicin should never be applied to broken skin. Remember to where gloves if you're working with a higher concentration and don't touch your face, if you don't where gloves be sure to thoroughly wash your hands before making contact with your face. 
According to studies, cinnamon may have a positive effect on the glycemic control and the lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This is because it contains 18% polyphenol content in dry weight. This popular Indian spice can improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control. According to a study published in Journal Of The American Board Of Family Medicine, “cinnamon lowered HbA1C by 0.83% compared with standard medication alone lowering HbA1C  0.37%. Taking cinnamon could be useful for lowering serum HbA1C in type 2 diabetics with HbA1C >7.0 in addition to usual care.”
It’s not just easy, but also tasty to add spices and herbs that lower blood sugar to your diet. Most of these can be used in everyday recipes. If you are looking for inspiration on how to start cooking with these, try out these recipes from our recipe section – Mushroom-stuffed Turkey, Stuffed Peppers, Apple Cinnamon Breakfast Pizza, Courgette Carrot & Tomato Frittata, Moussaka, Vegetable Stir Fry, and Roasted Butternut Squash
Homeopathy offers some of the best hope and relief for Varicose in the form of Pulsatilla, Hamamelis, and biochemic medicine like Calcarea Fluorica. Our list of top homeopathy medicines for varicose veins offer the natural treatment which is safe and free of side effects Varicose Veins in brief Varicose veins are simply enlarged veins that… Continue reading Top Homeopathic Medicines list for Varicose Veins. Buy Online
This treatment involves a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain nuts and seeds. Amygdalin is found in apricot kernels, cherry pits, some apple seeds, and a special type of almond seed called “bitter almond.” (Regular almonds do not contain amygdalin.) The bitter almond was the best source for amygdalin, but the USDA ordered all bitter almond trees to be destroyed, supposedly because  of a concern about cyanide poisoning. (Amygdalin contains cyanide.)

​Another well know spice in the kitchen cinnamon is also known for it's medicinal properties. While not really an herb I still think it's important to list it in our list of herbs and their uses. Cinnamon actually comes from the inner bark of a tree in the laurel family. It's been used for centuries and was a hot commodity for trade in ancient times. In fact during the first century A.D. in Rome cinnamon was 15 times more expensive than silver. The Chinese were probably the first to use cinnamon as a medicinal herb and used it to treat fevers, and diarrhea. In more modern times cinnamon has been found to stabilize blood sugar levels in diabetics, as it has an insulin kind of effect.


Ground cinnamon is very safe, the volatile oils can however cause a skin rash. Small amounts of coumarin can be found in Cassia and other cinnamons, generally only large doses of this compound will cause blood-thinning and liver problems, but it's something to be aware of. Also if you're planning on having surgery you should stop the use of cinnamon at least one week before going in as it has a blood thinning effect. You should also take care to monitor your blood sugar to avoid an unsafe drop in blood pressure.
Gerson Healing Centers of America has an office in San Diego, but the main clinic is in Mexico at Oasis of Hope. The diet is used to treat autoimmune disorders, CHD, and Type II diabetes using Gerson's Diet, Issel's treatments, and Danopoulos' protocols. They have clinics in Mexico, Canada, and the UK. See our organizations page. 1-888-4-GERSON www.gerson.org.
As you might expect from an herb like basil it has a pretty profound effect on the digestive system and therefore works great for treating things like indigestion, bloating, and gas. When you're using basil to treat these problems I'd recommend taking around 2-4 grams per day taken orally. Basil can also be used to ease the effects of insect bites and stings, simply crush the leaves so the juices can be applied to the affected area. To help from getting bit or stung in the first place you can rub the juice on the skin in the same manner, basil works rather well as an insecticide so this should help repel the bugs.
Hi Lydia you’ll never have AMONIA because it’s what you clean floors with but people tent to confuse it, as you did with NEUMONÍA. I also have a cough and bought at WALMART a ginger tea made in Australia which seems to be stronger than others when you don’t have ginger root handy. So I added honey. Always part of our staples and added lemon juice, always also part of our staple and drank tea hot after I let it steep in covered cup and I’m getting better. It beats taking meds that have horrible side effects.
These phytochemicals are divided into (1) primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants; and (2) secondary metabolites – compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function.[3] For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.[3]

Collectively, these early experiments demonstrated that factors specific to the environment of the cell were required to attenuate, or to facilitate, the transforming activity of this potent oncogene. Recent work in transgenic models and specialized cell culture systems has begun to define the specific microenvironmental determinants that have the power to normalize overtly malignant cells.

Health Dimensions Clinics located in West Columbia and Spartanburg, South Carolina are run by James Shortt, M.D. The Clinics feature Hormone Modulation, Immune Enhancement, Sports Medicine, Oxidative Medicine, Chelation Therapy, Neural Therapy, Kinesiology, Live Blood Analysis and Longevity and cancer treatments. He uses Oxidative Therapy, Chelation Therapy, DMSO, beta glucan, enzymes, and transfer factors as part of his therapy. (803) 755-0114

Native Americans used black cherry as a medicinal herb to treat coughs. The bark from the black cherry tree was often made into a tea or syrup and used to expel worms, heal ulcers and treat burns. They also used it as a remedy for sore throat, pneumonia and lack of appetite. Black Cherry bark contains a glycoside called prunasin. This substance quells spasms in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles, thus reducing the cough reflex.

Kava has been used by the people of the Pacific islands for hundreds of years as a natural anti-anxiety treatment. It has a very calming effect and puts most people in a good mood. It has also been used as a diuretic and to treat urinary problems, arthritis, asthma and upset stomach. It is very popular in Germany and often prescribed as the first line of treatment for anxiety disorders.
I have had severe bronchitis now for 5 weeks. I have had steroid shots, antibiotic shots, steroid pills, two rounds of antibiotics, inhalers, steroid inhalers and breathing treatments every four hours. My airways won’t stay open and this gives me a cough so bad that it hurts every time I cough. Do you have any suggestions on anything herbal that would he me? I’m desperate.
If you're looking to use neem as a skin toner, simply boil around 20 neem leaves in half a liter of water, once the leaves become soft and discolored and the water turns green you can strain them. Keep the liquid in a bottle and when you're ready to use it just take a cotton ball wet it down with the liquid and apply it to your face. This will prevent acne and blackheads from occurring. You can also use it to prevent skin infections simply by adding a little to your bath water.
We live in a world of cancer causing products. They are in conventional food, the water, the air, in our clothing, our automobiles, our homes, the office equipment we use, and in the phones that we use for communication. There is great wisdom in taking reasonable precaution against the factors that can contribute to cancer formation. Sometimes an individual factor may not be a serious risk, but when many factors are combined, they could put a high level of stress on your body and open the door for cancer growth. There are many other factors that could contribute to cancer growth, but the items listed here will be a good starting point. 

As I mentioned earlier lavender is a very commonly used for its essential oil; the sedating, soothing and relaxing properties of the lavender oil make it great for headaches. You can add some to homemade soap or put a few drops into your bathtub. I like to use my humidifier and place a few drops into the medicine dish. This is a great way to get the lavender oil into the air and keeps your room more humid too. The lavender oil can also be massaged into the skin to relieve any sort of aches and pains you might have as well. Teas are also a great way get the benefits of lavender, when you're steeping a cup of tea just drop a few sprigs of lavender into the cup and let it steep as well.
Cancer patients who choose alternative treatments instead of conventional treatments believe themselves less likely to die than patients who choose only conventional treatments.[15] They feel a greater sense of control over their destinies, and report less anxiety and depression.[15] They are more likely to engage in benefit finding, which is the psychological process of adapting to a traumatic situation and deciding that the trauma was valuable, usually because of perceived personal and spiritual growth during the crisis.[16]
For the post nasal drip I do ACV/Lemon shots 2-3 times a day. I use 1/2tsp cinnamon, 1/8-1/4tsp cayenne pepper and 1T honey in a cup. Pour in just enough very hot water to melt honey and the spices. Then add 1Tbl each lemon juice and ACV. Stir well and drink up. Im not sure how it all works together, but it dries up the sinus mucus to stop that nasty drip. It’s not immediate, so one dose won’t work before bedtime tonight, but if used for a couple days, it works for our family.
Let me suggest one home remedy for you. Take one or two spoon juice of redish (muli) add little rock salt and one spoon honey and mix and take two three times a day. Second : Keep a piece of raw ginger in mouth ….Third crush few fresh garlic and extract one spoon juice and take it Fourth Eat turmeric fresh in diet or take it’s powder in hot water with little salt . .. still if not cured contact on my email
^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B (Oct 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
** Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. Every attempt has been made for accuracy, but none is guaranteed. Many traditional uses and properties of herbs have not been validated by the FDA. If you have any serious health concerns, you should always check with your health care practitioner before self-administering herbs. **

One of the lesser known herbs that lower blood sugar, Marjoram, is high in polyphenols, which aids in stabilizing blood glucose levels. A 2012 study in the Journal of Evidence Based Alternative and Complementary Medicine found that Marjoram reduced formation of Advanced Glycation End (AGE) products. AGE is the smoking gun that researchers today say is responsible for a lot of the complications that diabetics face, like damage to arteries and eyes. Try sprinkling marjoram on your dinner every night to help add variety in flavor. It can often be used as a substitute for oregano in cooking and brings in a distinct flavor to dishes.
Let me suggest one home remedy for you. Take one or two spoon juice of redish (muli) add little rock salt and one spoon honey and mix and take two three times a day. Second : Keep a piece of raw ginger in mouth ….Third crush few fresh garlic and extract one spoon juice and take it Fourth Eat turmeric fresh in diet or take it’s powder in hot water with little salt . .. still if not cured contact on my email
The most significant use of cinnamon is to treat diabetes, take 1 teaspoon of powdered cinnamon daily to help level out blood sugar levels. Capsules of cinnamon can also be found the dosage varies but generally 1-6 grams of cinnamon capsules per day spaced out is a good amount. A nice little way to substitute cinnamon sugar would be to combine one cinnamon stick freshly ground with 6 teaspoons of stevia. This is great for adding to toast, oatmeal or fruit.
No matter what it is we’re doing, it’s always best to play it safe. Never take herbs or any health supplement without first talking it over with your doctor. Especially if you are pregnant or nursing, taking medication or are suffering from a disease or illness. Never give a child any herb or health supplement without first talking to your child’s doctor. Even though herbs are all natural and usually safe when taken in moderation, it’s better to be safe than sorry.
Some times when capsaicin is applied to the skin it can cause a burning, stinging, redness and even a rash. Most often this rash is more irritation than anything and well get better after the first few uses. If the rash persists though you should stop the use as you may have an allergy towards capsaicin. Also capsaicin should never be applied to broken skin. Remember to where gloves if you're working with a higher concentration and don't touch your face, if you don't where gloves be sure to thoroughly wash your hands before making contact with your face. 

Multiple scientific reports suggest that Iscador augments the immune response. Iscador has been shown to increase natural-killer cell function helping the body’s own surveillance system in attacking unwanted cancer cells. It also stimulates antibodies to cancer cells which helps recognize the cancer cells as foreign in order to destroy these cells.
It sounds like you have some sort of infection or irritation in the throat that they cannot pinpoint ….. Slice up a white onion as fine as you can get it use a mandolin if you can then add 1/3 cup of honey to it , then put it in a container and leave it in the fridge. It will have the most effect after 12 hours but you can start using it right away .
On the other hand, pathological ketoacidosis is a consequence of other disease conditions such as poorly managed type one diabetes. In this case, the level of ketones will be in the range of 15 to 25 mM. These extremely high levels of ketones can be a serious health problem. The ketogenic diet does not produce this level of ketones. For a thorough discussion of the scientific literature related to the use of the ketogenic diet in cancer treatment I recommend the treatise on the subject by Dr. Thomas N. Seyfried, Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. [2]
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