Most studies of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of cancer pain are of low quality in terms of scientific evidence. Studies of massage therapy have produced mixed results, but overall show some temporary benefit for reducing pain, anxiety, and depression and a very low risk of harm, unless the patient is at risk for bleeding disorders.[34][35] There is weak evidence for a modest benefit from hypnosis, supportive psychotherapy and cognitive therapy. Results about Reiki and touch therapy were inconclusive. The most studied such treatment, acupuncture, has demonstrated no benefit as an adjunct analgesic in cancer pain. The evidence for music therapy is equivocal, and some herbal interventions such as PC-SPES, mistletoe, and saw palmetto are known to be toxic to some cancer patients. The most promising evidence, though still weak, is for mind–body interventions such as biofeedback and relaxation techniques.[36]
CAUTION: Pregnant and nursing women should not eat alfalfa seeds due to their content of stachydrine and homostachydrine (may promote menstruation or cause miscarriage). People in general should never eat alfalfa seeds. They contain high levels of the toxic amino acid canavanine. Alfalfa is high in vitamin K and may work as an anti-coagulant so it shouldn’t be taken by people taking blood thinning medication.
Raw garlic is simply the best form of the herb to eat, when you cook garlic you destroy a lot of the constituents responsible for its medicinal properties. Aside from eating garlic raw you can also crush up a few cloves of garlic and add it too some olive oil which can then be put on a salad. You can also purchase garlic capsules these are a great way to get the main constituents of garlic into your body. Try and look for products containing allicin this is one of the top ingredients found in garlic.
Maine Whole Health in Portland Maine is run by Alan N.Weiner, DO, CCN. Alan N.Weiner is certified in clinical nutrition and has experience in treating cancer with a variety of alternative modalities. Devra Krassner, ND also works at the clinic. They guide you in bridging conventional and complementary cancer therapies. They use diet and nutrition programs to enhance the immune system, detoxification, IVs, supplements, homeopathy, herbal and botanical medicine, a complete mind/body approach - Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), and guided imagery. - 207-828-5645 http://www.mainewholehealth.com/.
The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The first describes some of the alternative cures for cancer that have been successfully used by many thousands of people. The second section describes some of the steps that you can take to prevent cancer from developing or reoccurring. The third section describes how to avoid exposing yourself to things that will increase your risk for developing cancer.
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Cloves protect the heart, liver and lens of the eye of diabetic rats, according to studies. This spice contains 30% of the antioxidant phenol in dry weight, along with antioxidants anthocyanins and quercetin. As a result, cloves have antiseptic as well as germicidal properties. It also offers anti-inflammatory, analgesic and digestive health benefits for diabetics.

Researchers found that the ketogenic diet significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While hyperbolic oxygen therapy by itself did not influence cancer progression, when it was combined with the ketogenic diet, it produced a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and a 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls.
About half the practitioners who dispense complementary treatments are physicians, although they tend to be generalists rather than oncologists. As many as 60% of American physicians have referred their patients to a complementary practitioner for some purpose.[7] While conventional physicians should always be kept aware of any complementary treatments used by a patient, many physicians in the United Kingdom are at least tolerant of their use, and some might recommend them.[10]
The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The first describes some of the alternative cures for cancer that have been successfully used by many thousands of people. The second section describes some of the steps that you can take to prevent cancer from developing or reoccurring. The third section describes how to avoid exposing yourself to things that will increase your risk for developing cancer.
Collectively, these early experiments demonstrated that factors specific to the environment of the cell were required to attenuate, or to facilitate, the transforming activity of this potent oncogene. Recent work in transgenic models and specialized cell culture systems has begun to define the specific microenvironmental determinants that have the power to normalize overtly malignant cells.
Cancer cells are your cells with the inherent wisdom to survive. To get them to change back into normal cells calls for an change in the internal environment. Cancer cells can grow rapidly with high toxins, low oxygen, high sugar and an acidic environment. Cancer cells would have no reason to be cancer cells if the environment had no toxins, high oxygen, low sugar and alkaline. This is because this is the environment that healthy cells thrive in. Change the environment and you can change the cancer cells back into normal cells. All alternative cancer treatments must understand this basic premise in order to be successful.
Conventional physicians want us to believe that there are only three treatments for cancer – surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. In fact, allopathic physicians have exclusively use these three approaches for the past 100 years with very little long-term success. Even though it is clear that even the US government admits that radiation and chemo both cause cancer, these therapies continue to be used with little concern about the new cancers that they cause.

​Aside from being a great herb for the kitchen basil has a place as an herbal medicine as well. One reason I really like the basil plant is the fact that it's super easy to grow, you just need to be sure you water it from time to time. It's a very aromatic herb too having kind of a licorice smell and taste as well. One cool thing that I found you can do with basil is cloning it. Sounds crazy right? It actually is pretty easy all you have to do is find the plant you wish to clone (the parent plant) and trim about 3-4 inches down from the top of a stem. You'll want to make sure you make the cut just above a node. This area will be where a leaf attaches to the body of the stem and is where new growth takes place. Then you simply remove the lower leaves of the cut so that you're left with a stem containing 4-6 leaves on the top. After that you simply just need to place the cut into a shallow dish of water and wait for roots to sprout, then you simply just plant the new basil clone into some soil. To speed up the root growth I've found that applying a rooting hormone and some honey to the end of the stem helps a lot. As I mentioned above basil has a place as an herbal medicine so let's take a look at the properties of the basil plant that we can use.


​The next herb on our list is chamomile, this is another great herb with a wide array of uses. The Spanish name for this herb is manzanilla which simply means "little apple" it's no surprise that the Spanish people gave it this name. When the leaves and petals are bruised they give off a very distinct apple aroma. There are two main species chamomile German chamomile and Roman or English chamomile, they're all similar in there medicinal effects but the Roman or English species have a more pronounced aroma than the German variety. Both varieties are relatively easy to grow from seed, in fact if they are left to seed on there own you'll find that they have grown back the next spring.  
Chickweed is probably best know for it's ability to relieve itchy skin, and is used a lot in treatments for eczema, nettle rash, and bug bites. A simple chickweed slave can be made by mixing olive oil, chickweed, beeswax, and lavender for fragrance. Finely chop the chickweed and let it sit and dry for about 24 hours. Then you'll want to mix an equal amount of the chickweed and olive oil and blend the mixture for around 20 seconds. Next place the mixture in a metal dish suspended above another metal dish with water in it. Heat the water in the bottom dish to a boil, don't let the bottom of the top dish touch the water this could allow the mixture to get too hot. Stir the mixture frequently then strain through a cheese cloth. Then using the same method melt the beeswax and add the infused oil, stir to combine and then remove. The salve can be put in a jar for later use.

Each culture independently discovered the herbs in there area that were beneficial to health and could treat specific health conditions. They built their healing herbs list over centuries of trial and error. An example would be a herb for increased energy from China would be ginseng. In Peru, they used maca root. In the United States they consumed bee pollen. And in India they used ashwagandha. Now, with the speed of the internet, we can learn about and buy any herb from any one of these powerful healing systems.
These phytochemicals are divided into (1) primary metabolites such as sugars and fats, which are found in all plants; and (2) secondary metabolites – compounds which are found in a smaller range of plants, serving a more specific function.[3] For example, some secondary metabolites are toxins used to deter predation and others are pheromones used to attract insects for pollination. It is these secondary metabolites and pigments that can have therapeutic actions in humans and which can be refined to produce drugs—examples are inulin from the roots of dahlias, quinine from the cinchona, morphine and codeine from the poppy, and digoxin from the foxglove.[3]

Clubmoss has been used by ancient healers for over two thousand years. The druids used this plant as a laxative and purgative. Native Americans used it to treat postpartum pain, fever, weakness and to stop the bleeding of wounds. Today, clubmoss is used for kidney and urinary disorders, stomach upset, diarrhea and for treating skin conditions. This plant contains a substance called Huperzine which may be effective for memory problems and Alzheimer’s disease. More studies on clubmoss have to be done to determine it’s safety and effectiveness in this area.

^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B (Oct 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.


Health Dimensions Clinics located in West Columbia and Spartanburg, South Carolina are run by James Shortt, M.D. The Clinics feature Hormone Modulation, Immune Enhancement, Sports Medicine, Oxidative Medicine, Chelation Therapy, Neural Therapy, Kinesiology, Live Blood Analysis and Longevity and cancer treatments. He uses Oxidative Therapy, Chelation Therapy, DMSO, beta glucan, enzymes, and transfer factors as part of his therapy. (803) 755-0114
Each culture independently discovered the herbs in there area that were beneficial to health and could treat specific health conditions. They built their healing herbs list over centuries of trial and error. An example would be a herb for increased energy from China would be ginseng. In Peru, they used maca root. In the United States they consumed bee pollen. And in India they used ashwagandha. Now, with the speed of the internet, we can learn about and buy any herb from any one of these powerful healing systems.
Despite this, many of these therapies have continued to be promoted as effective, particularly by promoters of alternative medicine. Scientists consider this practice quackery,[22][23] and some of those engaged in it have been investigated and prosecuted by public health regulators such as the US Federal Trade Commission,[24] the Mexican Secretariat of Health[25] and the Canadian Competition Bureau.[26] In the United Kingdom, the Cancer Act makes the unauthorized promotion of cancer treatments a criminal offense.[27][28]
​Peppermint is a very well known herb today because of the amazing aroma it has when the leaves are bruised. It's used in so many different ways both culinary and medicinal it's hard to not include peppermint in our list of herbs. Peppermint originally came from England some time in the late seventeenth century and is actually a hybrid that comes from the water mint and spearmint. Peppermint was also extensively used in Ancient Egypt where they used it for indigestion, dried peppermint leaves have even been found inside of the pyramids that the Egyptians had built. During the eighteenth century peppermint became popular in Western Europe for treating things like nausea, morning sickness, and respiratory infections.
Bring enough water to a boil to halfway fill a medium size-heat proof bowl. Pour the water into it, let it cool slightly for 30-60 seconds, and add the essential oils, giving it a quick stir to release the vapors. Lean over the bowl and get as close as you can while still being comfortable. Remember that steam can seriously burn! Use the towel to cover your head like a tent, trapping the steam, and breathe deeply. Ideally, do this for 5-10 minutes 2-3 times a day.
In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.[4] Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.

​Ginkgo Biloba has been used for thousands of years in herbal medicine. Probably first used by the Chinese, today it is used widely in both the United States and Europe. Ginkgo actually comes from the leaves of a the Ginkgo tree, while probably not an herb you would plant in your garden I still think it's a great herb to include in our list of herbs. Over the years Ginkgo Biloba has gained a reputation of being beneficial to the brain. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center the two main constituents found in Ginkgo are flavonoids and terpenoids, both are antioxidants. Flavonoids have been shown to aid in the protection of nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Terpenoids are probably where ginkgo gains it's reputation for being beneficial to the brain, terpenoids help improve blood flow to the brain by dilating blood vessels and prevents platelets from sticking to each other.
** Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. Every attempt has been made for accuracy, but none is guaranteed. Many traditional uses and properties of herbs have not been validated by the FDA. If you have any serious health concerns, you should always check with your health care practitioner before self-administering herbs. **
In Europe, apothecaries stocked herbal ingredients for their medicines. In the Latin names for plants created by Linnaeus, the word officinalis indicates that a plant was used in this way. For example, the marsh mallow has the classification Althaea officinalis, as it was traditionally used as an emollient to soothe ulcers.[4] Ayurvedic medicine, herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are other examples of medical practices that incorporate medical uses of plants. Pharmacognosy is the branch of modern medicine about medicines from plant sources. Plants included here are those that have been or are being used medicinally, in at least one such medicinal tradition.
The reason that patients using alternative treatments die sooner may be because patients who accurately perceive that they are likely to survive do not attempt unproven remedies, and patients who accurately perceive that they are unlikely to survive are attracted to unproven remedies.[17] Among patients who believe their condition to be untreatable by evidence-based medicine, "desperation drives them into the hands of anyone with a promise and a smile."[19] Con artists have long exploited patients' perceived lack of options to extract payments for ineffectual and even harmful treatments.[19]
Another very interesting alternative cancer treatment is Ukrain™. Formulated by Nowicky Pharma in Vienna, Austria, the anti-cancer drug is a semi-synthetic proprietary product which is an alkaloid extract from Chelidonium (common name Celandine). The medication is said to contain more than 40 alkaloids and is quickly absorbed by cancerous cells leading to rapid cancer-cell apoptosis. Primarily, it is given through IV as an alternative to chemotherapy for cancer patients and also has reported success with HIV and hepatitis patients.
In nutritional ketosis, the concentrations of ketone bodies will be in a range of 0.5 to 5.0 mM. This level of ketosis is not dangerous. It is the human body’s normal reaction to reduced carbohydrate availability. This is the condition that many people experience on an annual basis in parts of the world where food availability is limited during certain times of the year. It is also the condition that occurs with people who use periodic abstinence from food (fasting) as part of their religious practices.
Chop the ginger and add it along with the peppermint to 4 cups of water. Bring to a boil and then lower the heat so that the liquid simmer. Simmer until the liquid has been reduced by half, than strain. Let it cool slightly, and then stir in 1 cup of honey until it has been dissolved completely. Bottle and take 1 tablespoon every few hours as needed to ease your cough. Keep refrigerated for up to 3 weeks.
It’s never a fun situation when you have a persistent cough. You don’t want to be that person in a quiet room during a lecture that can’t stop breaking the silence with your hacking, or that person at the restaurant that makes people fling themselves over their plates to protect their food while you cough away. Or that person on the plane that everyone throws disgusted looks at. Coughs are just terribly uncomfortable all around, both physically and otherwise.

Hi. My name is Miranda Barros. Welcome to our website. My husband Bill and I are the editors here at HerbsList.net. We’ve been taking herbal supplements for over 25 years and have learned a lot about them through trial and error. Now, we’d like to share our passion for herbs with you, and hopefully pass on a little useful information along the way. We truly hope this information about herbs will help you discover the wonderful health benefits that are available to you right now. Thank’s for reading and please set a bookmark, as we’ll be adding more information to our herbs list on a regular basis.


Paul, I. M., Beiler, J., McMonagle, A., Shaffer, M. L., Duda, L., & Berlin Jr, C. M. (2007, December). Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(12), 1,140–1,146. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/571638
Ground cinnamon is very safe, the volatile oils can however cause a skin rash. Small amounts of coumarin can be found in Cassia and other cinnamons, generally only large doses of this compound will cause blood-thinning and liver problems, but it's something to be aware of. Also if you're planning on having surgery you should stop the use of cinnamon at least one week before going in as it has a blood thinning effect. You should also take care to monitor your blood sugar to avoid an unsafe drop in blood pressure.
Toxin theory of cancer: In this idea, the body's metabolic processes are overwhelmed by normal, everyday byproducts. These byproducts, called "toxins", are said to build up in the cells and cause cancer and other diseases through a process sometimes called autointoxication or autotoxemia. Treatments following this approach are usually aimed at detoxification or body cleansing, such as enemas.
In the past, I have regarded herbs, in many cases, as a safer alternative to drugs, useful for treating various symptoms but not to treat the underlying cause. I have since revised my opinion on this quite significantly, and now realize that herbs can help support your health from a very basic level, just as foods do. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, you could walk into a drug store and find hundreds of herbal extracts for sale. Upwards of 90 percent of the population at that time knew how to use the medicinal plants growing in their backyards to treat common illnesses and injuries; they had too, as this was virtually the only "medicine" available.
Pacific Center for Naturopathic Medicine in Bellingham is run by Rachelle Herdman, N.D., M.D. They treat cancer and autoimmune, neurological, cardiovascular, digestive disorders, and chronic fatigue. They use nutrition, diet, Ayurveda, homeopathy, botanical medicine and teas, herbal tinctures, plant extracts, and a variety of supplements. Second location in Canada. Phone: 360-734-0045.
In my opinion, when you find a certain therapy being criticized as being unproven quackery, then that is a pretty good sign that the alternative therapy is effective and safe. Big pharma would not waste their time preparing reports designed to warn people against using an alternative therapy unless that therapy is effective and has the potential for being a threat to their monopoly.
Partners in Wellness in Cincinnati - Leonid Macheret, M.D., is a general practice doctor who treats cancer and also arthritis, cardiovascular disorders, hypoglycemia, metabolic disorders, diabetes, fibromyalgia, and he also does preventive medicine. He uses chelation, acupuncture, nutrition, orthomolecular, ethnic herbs, Ayurvedic, yoga, and osteopathic manipulation. Phone: 513-851-8790.
Eating a clove or two of fresh garlic a day may indeed keep the doctor away, in part because it has immune-boosting, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal effects. Many of garlic's therapeutic effects are derived from its sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin, which are also what give it its characteristic smell. In general, garlic's benefits fall into four main categories:
Kava has been used by the people of the Pacific islands for hundreds of years as a natural anti-anxiety treatment. It has a very calming effect and puts most people in a good mood. It has also been used as a diuretic and to treat urinary problems, arthritis, asthma and upset stomach. It is very popular in Germany and often prescribed as the first line of treatment for anxiety disorders.

Survey data about how many cancer patients use alternative or complementary therapies vary from nation to nation as well as from region to region. A 2000 study published by the European Journal of Cancer evaluated a sample of 1023 women from a British cancer registry suffering from breast cancer and found that 22.4% had consulted with a practitioner of complementary therapies in the previous twelve months. The study concluded that the patients had spent many thousands of pounds on such measures and that use "of practitioners of complementary therapies following diagnosis is a significant and possibly growing phenomenon".[12]
Accent on Health in Lake Worth is run by Sheri W. Pinsley, D.O. They treat most cancers, chronic fatigue, immune suppressive diseases, candida, MS, Parkinson's disease, and chronic pain. They use intravenous treatments including chelation, vitamins and minerals, and hydrogen peroxide; nutritional counseling; stress management; and lifestyle modifications. Phone: (407) 547-2770.
As I mentioned before the whole dandelion plant can be used. The root has many beneficial medicinal properties in the digestive system such as the stomach, liver, and pancreas. The dandelion root helps to increase digestive secretions and has also showed capabilities of stabilizing blood sugar levels. The leaf of the dandelion herb primarily acts on the kidneys helping with fluid clearance and even weight loss. Dandelion leaves are a common choice for those looking to lower blood pressure too. When combined with other herbs it works to effectively relieve skin problems such as acne, boils, and eczema.  

Robert Jay Rowen, MD has moved from Alaska to Santa Rosa, CA. You can reach him at 707-571-7560. He treats most forms of cancer, as well as treating chronic pain, immune dysfunction, allergies, and cardiovascular disease. The main therapies he uses includes: IPT therapy, chelation, bio-oxidative, nutrition, herbs, acupuncture, immune therapies, vitamin C, vaccines, and detoxification. He is not using laetrile in California. We understand he enjoys treating later stage cancers. His website is http://www.doctorrowen.com, and his email is drrowen@att.net.
Modern medicine now tends to use the active ingredients of plants rather than the whole plants. The phytochemicals may be synthesized, compounded or otherwise transformed to make pharmaceuticals. Examples of such derivatives include digoxin, from digitalis; capsaicine, from chili; and aspirin, which is chemically related to the salicylic acid found in white willow. The opium poppy continues to be a major industrial source of opiates, including morphine. Few traditional remedies, however, have translated into modern drugs, although there is continuing research into the efficacy and possible adaptation of traditional herbal treatments.
Alfalfa is known as the “Father of all foods” for good reason. It’s loaded with important vitamins, minerals, trace minerals and protein. It’s roots go down as far as 30 feet to pull valuable nutrients from the earth. This plant is commonly used for arthritis, digestive problems, as a diuretic and for reducing high cholesterol. It’s a very inexpensive source of easily digested nutrients. Alfalfa is high in beta-carotene and builds the immune system. This plant also contains chlorophyll, which is good for reducing bad breath and body odor.
There was a clinical trial conducted at Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Madras, India that studied 22 patients with type 2 diabetes. It reported that supplementing the body with 400 mg of Gymnema Sylvestre extract daily resulted in remarkable reductions in blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c and glycosylated plasma protein levels. What’s even more remarkable is that by the end of this 18 month study, participants were able to reduce the dosage of their prescription diabetes medication. Five were even completely off medication and attaining stable blood sugar levels with Gymnema Sylvestre supplementation alone.
It’s not just easy, but also tasty to add spices and herbs that lower blood sugar to your diet. Most of these can be used in everyday recipes. If you are looking for inspiration on how to start cooking with these, try out these recipes from our recipe section – Mushroom-stuffed Turkey, Stuffed Peppers, Apple Cinnamon Breakfast Pizza, Courgette Carrot & Tomato Frittata, Moussaka, Vegetable Stir Fry, and Roasted Butternut Squash

The reason that patients using alternative treatments die sooner may be because patients who accurately perceive that they are likely to survive do not attempt unproven remedies, and patients who accurately perceive that they are unlikely to survive are attracted to unproven remedies.[17] Among patients who believe their condition to be untreatable by evidence-based medicine, "desperation drives them into the hands of anyone with a promise and a smile."[19] Con artists have long exploited patients' perceived lack of options to extract payments for ineffectual and even harmful treatments.[19]
Eating a clove or two of fresh garlic a day may indeed keep the doctor away, in part because it has immune-boosting, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal effects. Many of garlic's therapeutic effects are derived from its sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin, which are also what give it its characteristic smell. In general, garlic's benefits fall into four main categories:
Vashisht Homoeopathic Pharmaceuticals founded by Rtn Dr.Vashisht has completed over 25 years in the field of manufacturing quality products and ensures 'a doctor's Quality' medicines. It was established in the year 1984 at Hyderabad, situated at I.E. Medchal Hyderabad, and adopted Good Manufacturing process (GMP). The quality assurance laboratory checks all raw material and finished product… Continue reading Vashisht Homeopathic Pharmaceuticals – Complete Catalog, Buy Online

Iscador is prepared by fermenting an aqueous extract of the whole mistletoe plant with Lactobacillus plantarum. Mistletoe is one of the most widely studied complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for cancer. Mistletoe extracts have been evaluated in numerous clinical studies and improvements in survival, quality of life, and/or stimulation of the immune system have been frequently reported.


^ Vogl S, Picker P, Mihaly-Bison J, Fakhrudin N, Atanasov AG, Heiss EH, Wawrosch C, Reznicek G, Dirsch VM, Saukel J, Kopp B (Oct 2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.

A critical question is often asked: Why pursue the phenotypic reversion of malignancy? Surely it is better to look for more efficient methods of killing tumor cells? Tumors are remarkable creatures, possessed of manifold means to defeat the arsenal of therapeutics arrayed against them. Among other things, the genomic instability of tumors gives them a persistent evolutionary advantage, ensuring the survival of stronger, fitter, more aggressive cells that will go on to populate the body of their host. The approaches that have been taken show that it is possible to revert the malignant phenotype by the correction of environmental cues and by the normalization of signal transduction pathways even as the genome remains malignant and unstable. In this sense, the microenvironment can be dominant over the malignant genotype. It is of course preferable to eradicate the tumor altogether, but aggressive chemotherapy to eradicate a tumor often kills the host. The malleable nature of tumors would indicate that multiple approaches may be necessary. This raises the possibility of the long-term management of some cancers as a chronic condition in which the malignant potential of the tumor cells is constrained, perhaps for the lifetime of the patient.
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