The Cherokee Indians used black cohosh as a diuretic and as a remedy for fatigue and tuberculosis. Other native Americans used this herb to treat menstrual irregularities, rheumatism and sore throat. Today, black cohosh is used mainly to reduce the severity of premenopausal and menopausal symptoms, such as excessive sweating, depression and hot flashes.

Multiple scientific reports suggest that Iscador augments the immune response. Iscador has been shown to increase natural-killer cell function helping the body’s own surveillance system in attacking unwanted cancer cells. It also stimulates antibodies to cancer cells which helps recognize the cancer cells as foreign in order to destroy these cells.


Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez has developed Individualized Nutritional Protocols for the treatment of cancer. He relies on various dietary formulas along with high doses of pancreatic enzymes. He does not believe there is a one size fits all diet for cancer. He has found that there are differences between types of cancer and some respond better to certain types of diets. For this reason, he requires a specific medical diagnosis prior to entering into his treatment program.

Chamomile is most popular in tea form for use to calm upset stomach and help support restful sleep. Germany's Commission E (a government organization) has even approved the use of chamomile for reducing swelling on your skin and fighting bacteria. Chamomile is a powerful anti-inflammatory that also has antibacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-allergenic, muscle relaxant, and sedative properties. It is used to treat psoriasis, eczema, chickenpox, diaper rash, slow-healing wounds, abscesses, and gum inflammation,13 and according to Herb Wisdom may also be useful for the following conditions:14
Boswellia has been used in the Ayurvedic medicine system of India for over 2,000 years. Ancient healers used it to treat conditions such as asthma, fevers, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatism, and diabetes. Today, this herb is mostly used to treat inflammation and pain of the joints. The tree’s resin contains boswellic acid that acts as a 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) inhibitor.
The ketogenic diet is a high fat, moderate protein, low carbohydrate diet. When it is used as a cancer treatment, it is called a restricted ketogenic diet. The restriction means that the number of calories is limited and the amount of carbohydrate is extremely low. This diet brings about important changes in the ways cells in the body are nourished.
No matter what it is we’re doing, it’s always best to play it safe. Never take herbs or any health supplement without first talking it over with your doctor. Especially if you are pregnant or nursing, taking medication or are suffering from a disease or illness. Never give a child any herb or health supplement without first talking to your child’s doctor. Even though herbs are all natural and usually safe when taken in moderation, it’s better to be safe than sorry.
Collectively, these early experiments demonstrated that factors specific to the environment of the cell were required to attenuate, or to facilitate, the transforming activity of this potent oncogene. Recent work in transgenic models and specialized cell culture systems has begun to define the specific microenvironmental determinants that have the power to normalize overtly malignant cells.
^ Prior, Ronald L.; Cao, Guohua; Martin, Antonio; Sofic, Emin; McEwen, John; O'Brien, Christine; Lischner, Neal; Ehlenfeldt, Mark; et al. (1998). "Antioxidant Capacity As Influenced by Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content, Maturity, and Variety ofVacciniumSpecies". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 46 (7): 2686–93. doi:10.1021/jf980145d.
​Comfrey's use dates back centuries to at least the time of the ancient Greeks. During the Middle Ages comfrey was a widely cultivated herb found extensively in the gardens of monasteries. Throughout the 1700's and 1800's comfrey was also a popular herb grown in many gardens across Europe as well as America. Sometime during the late 1970's however research revealed that comfrey when taken internally can cause severe liver damage so it has lost popularity and internal use is even banned in many countries. Applications in the from of ointments, poultices, or creams are still considered safe though. Comfrey can still be found growing wild in central Europe, and the eastern United States as well as  a few western states.
Anyone can claim to be an herbalist, so be sure to look for someone with extensive training. Practitioners of both Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine rely on herbs for treatment. You may be able to find a knowledgeable practitioner through the American Herbalist Guild. Keep in mind that professional herbalists who advise clients on the use of medicinal herbs are typically not licensed to diagnose or treat disease.

For the post nasal drip I do ACV/Lemon shots 2-3 times a day. I use 1/2tsp cinnamon, 1/8-1/4tsp cayenne pepper and 1T honey in a cup. Pour in just enough very hot water to melt honey and the spices. Then add 1Tbl each lemon juice and ACV. Stir well and drink up. Im not sure how it all works together, but it dries up the sinus mucus to stop that nasty drip. It’s not immediate, so one dose won’t work before bedtime tonight, but if used for a couple days, it works for our family.


Here you get the soothing qualities of warming ginger, all wrapped up in a delicious easy to swallow cough syrup. Spicy ginger works as an expectorant, helping loosen and expel mucous from the lungs. It can also stop the painful tickle at the back of throat that can trigger a cough if the first place, if you are experiencing a dry cough. The peppermint will also help relieve the irritating tickle of a cough.
A dry, hacking, cough is another story. This is one we do want to stop. It can be caused by allergies, dry air, a random tickle at the back of your throat that won’t go away, the aftermath of a cold, being in a dusty environment, etc. etc. For these we turn to demulcents, ingredients that soothe irritated mucous membranes and remove the irritant triggering the cough. Studies conducted in 2004 found that the main ingredients in cough syrup (dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine) have the same effectiveness in treating coughs as a placebo ingredient. Instead of turning to chemical solutions for every minor ailment, try some home remedies instead. They are not only better for you, but they taste a whole lot better than most cough syrup too!
Ashwagandha is sometimes called “Indian ginseng” as it has many similar health properties. This herb is very popular in the Ayurvedic system of health in India. It is considered an adaptogen. It is commonly used to relieve stress and strengthen the immune system. It has the ability to strengthen the body and increase endurance. This herb has been used in India for over 3,000 years as a rejuvenator. The seeds of this plant are thought to have a diuretic effect, while the leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative properties. The chemical components of the root have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune strengthening and sedative properties. This is a great herb for athletes and active people that need to increase their energy, strength and stamina.
Cannabis	Cannabis	Used worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer's and dementia, ADHD, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn's disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others.[44]	

The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine. Many of these phytochemicals have beneficial effects on long-term health when consumed by humans, and can be used to effectively treat human diseases. At least 12,000 such compounds have been isolated so far; a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total.[1][2]
Yes. When taking medication, you should investigate possible interactions with an herbal remedy you may be considering. Be careful about mixing herbs and drugs that have similar actions. For example, it may not be a good idea to mix anticoagulant drugs with ginkgo, a natural blood thinner; the herb valerian, a sedative, probably shouldn’t be mixed with prescription sleeping pills. Similarly, avoid mixing herbs and drugs that have opposite actions. Other agents may alter the way a medication is handled by the body. For example, St. John’s wort, a natural remedy for depression, may reduce the effectiveness of some drugs by causing them to be metabolized too quickly. When in doubt, check with your pharmacist about herb/drug interactions. In addition, herbs that can thin blood, such as dong quai, feverfew, supplemental garlic, and ginger could cause problems if taken before surgery as could herbs such as ginseng and licorice root that affect heart rate and blood pressure. Sedative herbs like kava and valerian may increase the effects of anesthesia. It is best to stop taking any of these herbs at least 10-14 days before surgery, and be sure to tell your physician that you’ve been taking them.
Chickweed is probably best know for it's ability to relieve itchy skin, and is used a lot in treatments for eczema, nettle rash, and bug bites. A simple chickweed slave can be made by mixing olive oil, chickweed, beeswax, and lavender for fragrance. Finely chop the chickweed and let it sit and dry for about 24 hours. Then you'll want to mix an equal amount of the chickweed and olive oil and blend the mixture for around 20 seconds. Next place the mixture in a metal dish suspended above another metal dish with water in it. Heat the water in the bottom dish to a boil, don't let the bottom of the top dish touch the water this could allow the mixture to get too hot. Stir the mixture frequently then strain through a cheese cloth. Then using the same method melt the beeswax and add the infused oil, stir to combine and then remove. The salve can be put in a jar for later use.
Magaziner Medical Center in Cherry Hill is run by Allan Magaziner, D.O., P.C. He mainly treats prostate, breast, lung, and bowel cancers; but he also treats Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis and heart problems. He uses oral and IV vitamins, minerals, amino acids, oral botanicals, herbs, enzymes, homeopathic remedies, chelation, and detoxification. His website is www.drmagaziner.com. 856-424-8222

The simplest way to make natural cough syrup is to boil your herb (or herbs) of choice in water. The resulting liquid is now an herbal tea which can be strained and taken on its own. If you want to make a syrup, however, you'll need to let the strained tea cool just a bit and then add honey to the mixture. The amount of honey you add will vary depending on the amount of tea you have, but the resulting mixture should be thick enough to coat the throat.

​Garlic another herb commonly used in the kitchen also has its place here in our list of herbs. Garlic has been used for thousands of years and was thought to increase strength and stamina, it was used by the first Olympic athletes of Greece which very well could make it one of the first performance enhancing substances. From vampires to witches garlic was also used to ward off evil entities, in spells and charms. In the Middle Ages monasteries would grow garlic to treat digestive, kidney, and breathing issues. During World War II the Russians reportedly ate a lot of garlic and some say it helped keep them alive through the hard times. Today a lot of the use garlic get is to treat and prevent heart disease,  regulate cholesterol levels, reduce high blood pressure and strengthen the immune system. Garlic grows well all over the world where vegetable gardens can be made. Even grown indoors garlic can do quite well, you can actually take a clove of garlic and grow an entire garlic plant from that one clove. The next time you're at the grocery store buy some garlic, take one of the cloves and plant in some moist soil with the pointed end up. Continue to regularly water the clove and in no time at all you'll have a nice garlic plant. Garlic is perhaps one of the most important and often overlooked medicinal herbs on the planet, which is why I had to include it into our list of herbs.
We live in a world of cancer causing products. They are in conventional food, the water, the air, in our clothing, our automobiles, our homes, the office equipment we use, and in the phones that we use for communication. There is great wisdom in taking reasonable precaution against the factors that can contribute to cancer formation. Sometimes an individual factor may not be a serious risk, but when many factors are combined, they could put a high level of stress on your body and open the door for cancer growth. There are many other factors that could contribute to cancer growth, but the items listed here will be a good starting point.
Ground cinnamon is very safe, the volatile oils can however cause a skin rash. Small amounts of coumarin can be found in Cassia and other cinnamons, generally only large doses of this compound will cause blood-thinning and liver problems, but it's something to be aware of. Also if you're planning on having surgery you should stop the use of cinnamon at least one week before going in as it has a blood thinning effect. You should also take care to monitor your blood sugar to avoid an unsafe drop in blood pressure.

Hippophae rhamnoides Sea buckthorn The leaves are used as herbal medicine to alleviate cough and fever, pain, and general gastrointestinal disorders as well as to cure dermatologic disorders. Similarly, the fruit juice and oils can be used in the treatment of liver disease, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic wounds or other dermatological disorders.[90]
It can ease menstrual cramps and back aches, as well as relax the digestive system to ease upset stomach or indigestion issues. When applied topically to the skin, it soothes redness and irritation. For this reason, it is a common ingredient in skincare. It also eliminates itchiness and is good for those with allergic reactions. Sometimes chamomile is used on rashes. Because of its anti-inflammatory properties, it can work to take down swelling caused by rashes or skin irritants."
Many people with cancer are interested in trying anything that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you have little control over your health, alternative cancer treatments may offer some feeling of control. But many alternative cancer treatments are unproved and some may even be dangerous.

Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects.[1][2]


Despite this, many of these therapies have continued to be promoted as effective, particularly by promoters of alternative medicine. Scientists consider this practice quackery,[22][23] and some of those engaged in it have been investigated and prosecuted by public health regulators such as the US Federal Trade Commission,[24] the Mexican Secretariat of Health[25] and the Canadian Competition Bureau.[26] In the United Kingdom, the Cancer Act makes the unauthorized promotion of cancer treatments a criminal offense.[27][28]
In nutritional ketosis, the concentrations of ketone bodies will be in a range of 0.5 to 5.0 mM. This level of ketosis is not dangerous. It is the human body’s normal reaction to reduced carbohydrate availability. This is the condition that many people experience on an annual basis in parts of the world where food availability is limited during certain times of the year. It is also the condition that occurs with people who use periodic abstinence from food (fasting) as part of their religious practices.

Gymnema Sylvestre is a vine native to Central & South India. Used in traditional Indian medicine since the 6th century BC, the leaves of this plant contain ‘gymnemic acids’ that have the amazing ability to slow down the transport of glucose from the intestines to the bloodstream. Some scientists even believe that Gymnema Sylvestre extract can help repair and regenerate pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin!


CAM therapies include a wide variety of botanicals and nutritional products, such as dietary supplements, herbal supplements, and vitamins. Many of these "natural" products are considered to be safe because they are present in, or produced by, nature. However, that is not true in all cases. In addition, some may affect how well other medicines work in your body. For example, the herb St. John's wort, which some people use for depression, may cause certain anticancer drugs not to work as well as they should.
Hi all, the natural remedies are good, I have made one vital discovery that the most effective way to keep your airways open is to relax. Keep repeating to the brain that there is no danger or the danger has now been overcome. If possible kèep a piece of ginger in your mouth and suck it like a lozenge when required. It is very important for the brain to know that the battle is over. So calm down let your brain know. Slowly you will see your airways relaxing as well. Will take a day or 2. Meanwhile have luke warm water. This has worked for me. Hydration is very important
If you're looking to use neem as a skin toner, simply boil around 20 neem leaves in half a liter of water, once the leaves become soft and discolored and the water turns green you can strain them. Keep the liquid in a bottle and when you're ready to use it just take a cotton ball wet it down with the liquid and apply it to your face. This will prevent acne and blackheads from occurring. You can also use it to prevent skin infections simply by adding a little to your bath water.
Verma, N., Meena, N. K., Majumdar, I., & Paul, J. (2017, December 30). Role of bromelain as herbal anti-inflammatory compound using in vitro and in vivo model of colitis. Journal of Autoimmune Disorders, 3(52). Retrieved from http://autoimmunediseases.imedpub.com/role-of-bromelain-as-herbal-antiinflammatory-compound-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model-of-colitis.php?aid=21395
A distinction is typically made between complementary treatments which do not disrupt conventional medical treatment, and alternative treatments which may replace conventional treatment. Alternative cancer treatments are typically contrasted with experimental cancer treatments – which are treatments for which experimental testing is underway – and with complementary treatments, which are non-invasive practices used alongside other treatment. All approved chemotherapeutic cancer treatments were considered experimental cancer treatments before their safety and efficacy testing was completed.
Top homeopathy hospitals in HyderabadThanks for sharing this post and Impressive site you have thank you all.Dr. Ankireddy’s (Sneha Homeopathy Clinic) includes homeopathy as a combination of psychology, communications and medical “Art”. Here the doctors able to get close to people, deeply understand and address their psychological and physical, economical & social problems.
^ Gardner, C. D.; Lawson, L. D.; Block, E.; Chatterjee, L. M.; Kiazand, A.; Balise, R. R.; Kraemer, H. C. (2007). "Effect of Raw Garlic vs Commercial Garlic Supplements on Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial". Archives of Internal Medicine. 167 (4): 346–53. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.4.346. PMID 17325296.

Hi, just want to share what I know – use only raw honey! If it was boiled, or even warmed up above body temp – it loses all it’s goodness and becomes as good as regular sugar. If it is boiled – it actually becomes cancerogenic. If you buy honey locally just pay attention to the appearance – fresh honey will stay in liquid form only a couple of month after that is is crystallized. People often mix honey with sugary syrups to keep it looking runny and to make more volume for profit. Be aware! Honey is extremely good for you, but with dry cough – not sure. It actually does dry your throat more.
Saw palmetto is a very popular herb with men over 40. It is often used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and it’s symptoms, like painful urination and the need to urinate frequently. Another popular use of this herb is to treat male pattern baldness by reducing the body’s levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Too much DHT is believed to be what causes hair loss.
Another very interesting alternative cancer treatment is Ukrain™. Formulated by Nowicky Pharma in Vienna, Austria, the anti-cancer drug is a semi-synthetic proprietary product which is an alkaloid extract from Chelidonium (common name Celandine). The medication is said to contain more than 40 alkaloids and is quickly absorbed by cancerous cells leading to rapid cancer-cell apoptosis. Primarily, it is given through IV as an alternative to chemotherapy for cancer patients and also has reported success with HIV and hepatitis patients.
​Stinging nettles are an interesting herb that we have growing rampant here in Nebraska. Stinging nettles are probably best known for... you guessed it their sting. The nettle plant has  sharp spines that are revealed upon contact and once they penetrate the skin of the victim they release a concoction of chemicals into the body. This is where you get that burning/itchy feeling from, the nettle plant releases a mix of histamine, acetylcholine, serotonin, and formic acid. Surprisingly the treatment for this burning sensation can be found via the plant itself; the juice from the nettle's leaves can be applied to the affected area. Aside from the painful sting of the nettle plant it is actually a very beneficial herb and undoubtedly deserves to be in our list of herbs here. 
James R. Privitera, M.D. has an office in Covina. He treat arthritis, circulatory problems, preventive medicine, chronic fatigue, and PMS in addition to cancer. His approach is to use nutrition, immunological enhancement, chelation, and darkfield microscope. His website is http://www.nutriscreen.com/. Contact info: Phone: (626) 966-1618 or Toll Free: (888) 220-7888 or toll free: 800-5-PREVENT
^ Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; Mohammadi, M.; Ohadinia, S.; Jamshidi, A. H.; Khani, M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 28 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x. PMID 12605619.
Ashwagandha is sometimes called “Indian ginseng” as it has many similar health properties. This herb is very popular in the Ayurvedic system of health in India. It is considered an adaptogen. It is commonly used to relieve stress and strengthen the immune system. It has the ability to strengthen the body and increase endurance. This herb has been used in India for over 3,000 years as a rejuvenator. The seeds of this plant are thought to have a diuretic effect, while the leaves possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative properties. The chemical components of the root have anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immune strengthening and sedative properties. This is a great herb for athletes and active people that need to increase their energy, strength and stamina.

Homeopathy is well-known for its positive results in treating any illness. You might have known that long term use of medicines can make your immune system weak. Homeopathy will always help you in strengthening your immunity power. A sound immune system will protect you from the attack of serious illnesses. Homeopathy works according to your body system not against it. If you have any serious or even mild health problem, you should try homeopathy medicines first.
Information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the advice provided by your physician or other healthcare professional. You should not use the information on this website for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing any medication or other treatment. Any third party offering or advertising on this website does not constitute an endorsement by Andrew Weil, M.D. or Healthy Lifestyle Brands.
Maine Whole Health in Portland Maine is run by Alan N.Weiner, DO, CCN. Alan N.Weiner is certified in clinical nutrition and has experience in treating cancer with a variety of alternative modalities. Devra Krassner, ND also works at the clinic. They guide you in bridging conventional and complementary cancer therapies. They use diet and nutrition programs to enhance the immune system, detoxification, IVs, supplements, homeopathy, herbal and botanical medicine, a complete mind/body approach - Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), and guided imagery. - 207-828-5645 http://www.mainewholehealth.com/.
​Chickweed is an annual herb that can be found all over the world in temperate as well as arctic regions. An interesting characteristic of the chickweed is that it sleeps, at night the leaves will fold up covering the young buds and shoots. Chickweed is also known for being quite a nutritious herb and is a good choice to include in your salads.  The whole plant can be used both dried and fresh in herbal remedies. Let's have a look at the main medicinal uses now that this herb is best know for.
I have been suffering with diabetes since 2008. In the beginning of my being diagnosed I was in control of it. but now it seems that nothing works. I have lost 36 lbs. and still nothing. I can drink one soda one eat a cookie and my sugar will sky rocket. Please tell me what I can do the get this under control. There is a lot of good info here. I will be starting with the gooseberry juice tomorrow

With a high fat ketogenic diet, the body converts the fat into a non-glucose energy source. If a restricted ketogenic diet is used, then excess body fat will also be converted into an energy source and consumed. Our bodies have an amazing ability to produce all the energy that we need from the high fat, medium protein, low carbohydrate diet. The prolonged use of this diet will normalize weight, protect muscle tissue, and starve cancer.


​Witch hazel is an interesting herb that I've only recently found out about, it has been used for centuries by the Native Americans though.  When I was researching witch hazel I assumed that it got its name for warding off witches or something, but it actually was used as a witching stick for locating underground sources of water and or precious minerals. Witch hazel might not be considered an herb by some due to the fact it is a woody shrub, but it has very strong astringent and antiseptic properties so I just had to include it in the list of herbs along with its uses. Today you can find witch hazel in pretty much any drugstore in the form of witch hazel water (an alcohol extract of the twigs). The only problem with this is that most of the time the extract contains very little of the actual herb, and most of the effects might actually come from the alcohol itself.
Standard medical care is medicine that is practiced by health professionals who hold an M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degree. It is also practiced by other health professionals, such as physical therapists, physician assistants, psychologists, and registered nurses. Standard medicine may also be called biomedicine or allopathic, Western, mainstream, orthodox, or regular medicine. Some standard medical care practitioners are also practitioners of CAM.
Despite this, many of these therapies have continued to be promoted as effective, particularly by promoters of alternative medicine. Scientists consider this practice quackery,[22][23] and some of those engaged in it have been investigated and prosecuted by public health regulators such as the US Federal Trade Commission,[24] the Mexican Secretariat of Health[25] and the Canadian Competition Bureau.[26] In the United Kingdom, the Cancer Act makes the unauthorized promotion of cancer treatments a criminal offense.[27][28]
It seems that every day modern medicine is telling us to take more prescription drugs. Yes, there’s a drug for everything. While some drugs are very useful and do save lives, there is a limit to how many of these the body can withstand. I believe that taking herbs whenever possible is the better and more healthy way to go. There are many herbs that work as well or better than prescription medicine for certain conditions. An example would be taking ginger rather than Dramamine. In scientific tests, ginger was found to be more effective in preventing motion sickness.
Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.
Paul, I. M., Beiler, J., McMonagle, A., Shaffer, M. L., Duda, L., & Berlin Jr, C. M. (2007, December). Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(12), 1,140–1,146. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/571638
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