The listing of a doctor or clinic here does not signify an endorsement by the Cancer Cure Foundation. We will add additional information about each clinic as soon as our staff has a chance to contact them. If we have a separate page for the clinic, there will be a hyperlink to that page. In addition, we are putting together a database that will include details including contact information, size of clinic, costs if available, whether they take insurance, etc. If you would like us to check our database to see if we have this information available on a particular clinic, or if you would like us to contact a clinic on your behalf, contact our office by emailing us at webmaster@cancure.org, or by calling us at (800) 282-2873 or (805) 498-0185 9-5 PST. We have been asked to add contact information to our website - We are still confirming this information, so if you find any of the phone numbers, websites, or addresses are not accurate, please let our webmaster@cancure.org know.
Centers for Integrative and Complementary Medicine in New York is run by Dr. Dr. Fred Pescatore, who has worked along side Dr. Atkins. Dr. Pescatore treats patients with AIDS, diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, and cancer—in addition to addressing more common concerns such as diet and nutrition—by employing a combination of both alternative and traditional medicines. 212-779-2944.
Black pepper is the world’s most traded spice, but most of its use is limited to the culinary world. What people don’t know is that it can make a great remedy for coughs that are accompanied by a lot of mucous or chest congestion. If you’ve accidently leaned too close to black pepper while it’s being grinded, you know it can make you cough or tickle your nose. This may not be fun on a regular basis, but it’s a plus if you need to expel all the nasty stuff that’s gunking up your lungs. The honey adds its antibacterial properties, and it makes it so the pepper isn’t too irritating. You can make black pepper “syrup” with honey, or a tea, as below. If possible, use freshly ground black pepper, as the pre-ground pepper simply seems to lose some of its punch.
The simplest way to make natural cough syrup is to boil your herb (or herbs) of choice in water. The resulting liquid is now an herbal tea which can be strained and taken on its own. If you want to make a syrup, however, you'll need to let the strained tea cool just a bit and then add honey to the mixture. The amount of honey you add will vary depending on the amount of tea you have, but the resulting mixture should be thick enough to coat the throat.
None of them worked for me my cough is like a deep lung type of cough it’s a dry cough but I cough so much that I literally throw up so yeah if anybody else in the comments have any other idea please reply I am 11 and need to get rid of This cough immediately I have been hulusinating feeling dizzy every time I cough sometimes I fined it hard to breath and than I get bad asthma attacks as well as I have a giant head cold wich is making everything worse so please help me out
Acupuncture & Natural Medicine Clinic in Portland is run by Rick Marinelli, N.D., M.Ac.O.M. The clinic focuses on the successful treatment of chronic disease and pain, and can help with adjunctive cancer therapy, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, diabetes, and degenerative disc disease. They use naturopathic medicine, acupuncture, Neural Therapy, Prolotherapy, integrated medicine, Orthopedic Medicine, herbal medicine, nutritional medicine, and detoxification. Website: http://www.natural-healthmedicine.com info@natural-healthmedicine.com. (503) 644-4446
The Foxhollow Clinic of Integrated Biological Medicine in Crestwood offers an individualized program that may include intravenous therapies, metal detox, Neuromuscular Restructuring, neural therapy, cupping, juicing, immune strengthening therapies, hormone balancing, stress management, mind/body approaches, nutrition, supplements, and energy balancing - rebalancing the energy "meridians" in your body through homeopathy, oriental medicine, European biological remedies and anthroposophical medicine. They are a partner clinic with Paracelsus Clinic in Switzerland. Contact info: 502-241-4304, (800) 624-7080, Fax: (502) 241-3935, or www.Foxhollow.com.
Hippocrates Health Institute in West Palm Beach, FL. They treat cancer, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies, and more. They use diet, detox, mind/body approaches, nutritional counseling, wheatgrass and juice therapy, nutripuncture, and electro-magnetic treatments. We are not sure if they are set up to treat advanced cancers. www.hippocratesinst.com 800-842-2125
If you get cancer and reach the point where you are ready to yell at your doctor because you are dying and you expect him to save you, then you will be disappointed. The truth is that when it comes to curing cancer, you cannot be a passive spectator. You need to take action to reform your life. A cure for cancer is possible. Even advanced metastatic cancer can be cured, however, you must make a serious decision to take every step possible to bring about the cure. Rarely will that cure be found in radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or in surgery. It will be found in the kinds of treatments that I have reviewed in this article.
Cannabis Cannabis Used worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer's and dementia, ADHD, autism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn's disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others.[44]
Partners in Wellness in Cincinnati - Leonid Macheret, M.D., is a general practice doctor who treats cancer and also arthritis, cardiovascular disorders, hypoglycemia, metabolic disorders, diabetes, fibromyalgia, and he also does preventive medicine. He uses chelation, acupuncture, nutrition, orthomolecular, ethnic herbs, Ayurvedic, yoga, and osteopathic manipulation. Phone: 513-851-8790.
The remainder of this article is divided into three sections. The first describes some of the alternative cures for cancer that have been successfully used by many thousands of people. The second section describes some of the steps that you can take to prevent cancer from developing or reoccurring. The third section describes how to avoid exposing yourself to things that will increase your risk for developing cancer.

If you get cancer and reach the point where you are ready to yell at your doctor because you are dying and you expect him to save you, then you will be disappointed. The truth is that when it comes to curing cancer, you cannot be a passive spectator. You need to take action to reform your life. A cure for cancer is possible. Even advanced metastatic cancer can be cured, however, you must make a serious decision to take every step possible to bring about the cure. Rarely will that cure be found in radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or in surgery. It will be found in the kinds of treatments that I have reviewed in this article.


For toothaches a clove or drop of clove oil on a cotton ball can be placed on the aching tooth. This method should be used sparingly however and do not place the oil on the gum. For nerve pain a diluted oil up to 3% max can be applied to the skin to treat problems such as shingles. In small doses clove powder can be useful for treating things such as nausea, indigestion, and bloating.
Alternative cancer treatments have not undergone properly conducted, well-designed clinical trials. Among those that have been published, the methodology is often poor. A 2006 systematic review of 214 articles covering 198 clinical trials of alternative cancer treatments concluded that almost none conducted dose-ranging studies, which are necessary to ensure that the patients are being given a useful amount of the treatment.[6] These kinds of treatments appear and vanish frequently, and have throughout history.[7]
None of them worked for me my cough is like a deep lung type of cough it’s a dry cough but I cough so much that I literally throw up so yeah if anybody else in the comments have any other idea please reply I am 11 and need to get rid of This cough immediately I have been hulusinating feeling dizzy every time I cough sometimes I fined it hard to breath and than I get bad asthma attacks as well as I have a giant head cold wich is making everything worse so please help me out
A dry, hacking, cough is another story. This is one we do want to stop. It can be caused by allergies, dry air, a random tickle at the back of your throat that won’t go away, the aftermath of a cold, being in a dusty environment, etc. etc. For these we turn to demulcents, ingredients that soothe irritated mucous membranes and remove the irritant triggering the cough. Studies conducted in 2004 found that the main ingredients in cough syrup (dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine) have the same effectiveness in treating coughs as a placebo ingredient. Instead of turning to chemical solutions for every minor ailment, try some home remedies instead. They are not only better for you, but they taste a whole lot better than most cough syrup too!
​Peppermint is a very well known herb today because of the amazing aroma it has when the leaves are bruised. It's used in so many different ways both culinary and medicinal it's hard to not include peppermint in our list of herbs. Peppermint originally came from England some time in the late seventeenth century and is actually a hybrid that comes from the water mint and spearmint. Peppermint was also extensively used in Ancient Egypt where they used it for indigestion, dried peppermint leaves have even been found inside of the pyramids that the Egyptians had built. During the eighteenth century peppermint became popular in Western Europe for treating things like nausea, morning sickness, and respiratory infections.
Over the years, I have been given a lot of different advice as well, so when I heard about Dr. Budwig’s protocol I too was very skeptical, until I tried it. Numerous, independent clinical cancer studies published in major medical journals world-wide confirm Dr. Budwig’s findings. Over 40 years ago, Dr. Budwig presented clear and convincing evidence, which has been confirmed by hundreds of other related scientific research papers since, that the essential fatty acids were at the core of the answer to the cancer problem.
This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.
None of them worked for me my cough is like a deep lung type of cough it’s a dry cough but I cough so much that I literally throw up so yeah if anybody else in the comments have any other idea please reply I am 11 and need to get rid of This cough immediately I have been hulusinating feeling dizzy every time I cough sometimes I fined it hard to breath and than I get bad asthma attacks as well as I have a giant head cold wich is making everything worse so please help me out
It sounds like you have some sort of infection or irritation in the throat that they cannot pinpoint ….. Slice up a white onion as fine as you can get it use a mandolin if you can then add 1/3 cup of honey to it , then put it in a container and leave it in the fridge. It will have the most effect after 12 hours but you can start using it right away .
​Also known as pot marigold or poet's marigold, calendula is different than the common marigold that's usually seen in gardens. Unlike the common marigold calendula is edible and has very little scent. During medieval time in England the calendula herb was commonly used in stews, syrups, and breads. Calendula is also rather easy to start from seed and is able to adapt to many growing conditions making it an ideal herb to grow. The herb is found in many gardens all over the world for subarctic to tropic regions. Now let's take a look at the key medicinal uses that make calendula such a prized herb to have.

Here you get the soothing qualities of warming ginger, all wrapped up in a delicious easy to swallow cough syrup. Spicy ginger works as an expectorant, helping loosen and expel mucous from the lungs. It can also stop the painful tickle at the back of throat that can trigger a cough if the first place, if you are experiencing a dry cough. The peppermint will also help relieve the irritating tickle of a cough.


Skullcap is an ancient sleep aid remedy. It can greatly reduce anxiety and nervousness. It is often called nature’s tranquilizer. Besides its use as a sleep aid, many people take it to relieve muscle spasms and twitches, lower blood pressure and cholesterol. This herb also possesses anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful for treating arthritis and joint pain.

To treat colds or coughs you can make a nice ginger tea by cutting about one inch of ginger root into small pieces and adding to two cups of water and simmering for fifteen minutes. Ginger can also be found in capsules like a lot of other herbs and is a great way to get your dose of ginger for the day. Extracts are also available but are generally used only to treat osteoarthritis.
Institute of East-West Medicine is run by Raymond Chang, M.D., F.A.C.P. He treats cancer with TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Ayurveda and authentic Tibetan Medicine consultations are offered. The emphasis is on preserving and practicing the original traditional healing arts of Asia with modern conventional medicine. 212-683-1221. The website is http://www.eastwestmed.org and email is info@eastwestmed.org.
As you might expect from an herb like basil it has a pretty profound effect on the digestive system and therefore works great for treating things like indigestion, bloating, and gas. When you're using basil to treat these problems I'd recommend taking around 2-4 grams per day taken orally. Basil can also be used to ease the effects of insect bites and stings, simply crush the leaves so the juices can be applied to the affected area. To help from getting bit or stung in the first place you can rub the juice on the skin in the same manner, basil works rather well as an insecticide so this should help repel the bugs.
Sage is often referred to as the Throat Herb, with good reason. It has a rich history of being used for mouth and throat ailments. Making this strong tasting herb into an herbal syrup is a good way to get it down. Sage has a strong flavor and may be unpleasant-tasting for young children. To beat this taste you can mix it with other herbs of your choosing.
Dr. Paul Anderson is a Naturopathic Physician in Salem. His website is http://www.docpaulanderson.com and the phone number to reach him at is 503-365-0377. Dr. Anderson provides health care for the whole family, integrating conventional and alternative health care. He provides intensive treatment to support the immune system, including I.V. treatment, diet therapy, and detoxification. These same therapies may also help traditional therapies (such as surgery and chemotherapy) work better. Each patient is treated as an individual, and personal choices are supported.
The cancer industry is probably the most prosperous business in the United States. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. $6 billion of tax-payer funds are cycled through various federal agencies for cancer research, such as the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The NCI states that the medical costs of cancer care are $125 billion, with a projected 39 percent increase to $173 billion by 2020.
Important. Please Read: This website is for the presentation of the historical uses of herbs and it’s contents are for informational purposes only. Never take any herb or health supplement without first consulting your doctor. Never take any herb or supplement without your doctor’s consent if you are pregnant, nursing or trying to get pregnant. Never give herbs or health supplements to children without first talking to their doctor. The statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA. The herbs and supplements mentioned are not intended to cure, treat, diagnose or prevent disease. Always play it safe.
one instant fix is mint, three or four frisks are like magic but is not a cure, I grated two finger size of ginger, two/three spoons of turmeric , one chopped lemon, put them on a jar and cover with raw honey, took away the bad mood of the flu , u can make a tea with ginger an turmeric but lemon and honey won’t like hot, at least that’s what they say, if u are brave enough, chop an onion, put on a mixer with four cloves of garlic, cover with lemonade (home made) , give a spin and bottoms up.

It seems that every day modern medicine is telling us to take more prescription drugs. Yes, there’s a drug for everything. While some drugs are very useful and do save lives, there is a limit to how many of these the body can withstand. I believe that taking herbs whenever possible is the better and more healthy way to go. There are many herbs that work as well or better than prescription medicine for certain conditions. An example would be taking ginger rather than Dramamine. In scientific tests, ginger was found to be more effective in preventing motion sickness.
There are alternative cancer treatment physicians in Europe who will not treat patients with cancer until they have a dental revision. This means patients must have all the mercury/silver dental fillings replaced with nontoxic materials, and all other metal structures must be removed from their mouths. All root canal teeth must be removed, because they are an ongoing source of toxic waste products from residual bacterial infection. The toxins from root canal teeth stress the entire body. In many situations, mercury, root canals, and metal in the mouth will prevent alternative cancer treatments from being effective. These foreign substances also support the existence of cancer, because of their ability to interfere with the subtle energy systems of the body.
Teas are a great way to get the benefits of sage all you need to do is steep one teaspoon of sage in a cup of water for about 10 minutes. You can also make a pretty awesome sore throat reliever by combining sage and thyme. Take an ounce of both grind them, and cover them with 16 ounces of apple cider vinegar. Be sure to shake it periodically and let it sit for ten days before using.
Like I mentioned earlier Ginkgo helps increase the blood flow to the brain, so it comes as no surprise that this herb can aid in cognitive function and memory. It has also been shown to help with symptoms associated with the central nervous system such as tinnitus and vertigo. The brain isn't the only place Ginkgo will increase circulation in fact the whole body from the toes to your head have increased circulation when taking the herb. Most commonly Ginkgo is taken orally via capsules, these can be found for a reasonable price at Walgreens, CVS or the like.

Recent research has suggested that probiotic supplementation may be able to stop tumor growth. (12) And this makes perfect sense because 80 percent of your immune system is housed in your gut. In addition to supporting your immunity to disease, research has also shown that probiotics can improve digestive function and mineral absorption as well as aid in healing leaky gut, which all contribute to helping prevent cancer!

According to studies, cinnamon may have a positive effect on the glycemic control and the lipid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This is because it contains 18% polyphenol content in dry weight. This popular Indian spice can improve insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control. According to a study published in Journal Of The American Board Of Family Medicine, “cinnamon lowered HbA1C by 0.83% compared with standard medication alone lowering HbA1C  0.37%. Taking cinnamon could be useful for lowering serum HbA1C in type 2 diabetics with HbA1C >7.0 in addition to usual care.”

Partners in Wellness in Cincinnati - Leonid Macheret, M.D., is a general practice doctor who treats cancer and also arthritis, cardiovascular disorders, hypoglycemia, metabolic disorders, diabetes, fibromyalgia, and he also does preventive medicine. He uses chelation, acupuncture, nutrition, orthomolecular, ethnic herbs, Ayurvedic, yoga, and osteopathic manipulation. Phone: 513-851-8790.
New Hope Medical Center in Scottsdale uses alternative methods to treat immune deficient illnesses such as cancer. Dr. Fredda Branyon, Director, and Dr. Mario Galaburri, NMD, agree that a physician should never just treat the symptoms of the illness, but treat the individual as a whole. Dr. Ronald Peters, MD, MPH, has also joined the New Hope team, reinforcing New Hope Medical Center’s commitment to offer its patients an aggressive, non-invasive approach to the treatment of cancer and other auto-immune diseases. Dr. Peters has 15 years of experience in integrative medicine and nutritional biochemistry, with special emphasis in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease. Phone (480) 556-0182, toll free: (888) 518-7788, or go to their website at http://www.newhopemedicalcenter.com/.
Use peppermint essential oil as a cold rub on your chest or inhale it through a vaporizer to help clear nasal congestion and relieve cough and cold symptoms. Peppermint oil may also help relieve tension headache pain. For headache pain, try dabbing a few drops on your wrist or sprinkling a few drops on a cloth, then inhaling the aroma. You can also massage the oil directly onto your temples and forehead. Peppermint essential oil is ideal for muscle and chest rubs, headache pain, dental care, and aromatherapy. You can even add it to your homemade cleaning supplies for extra antimicrobial power and natural fragrance.
Here you get the soothing qualities of warming ginger, all wrapped up in a delicious easy to swallow cough syrup. Spicy ginger works as an expectorant, helping loosen and expel mucous from the lungs. It can also stop the painful tickle at the back of throat that can trigger a cough if the first place, if you are experiencing a dry cough. The peppermint will also help relieve the irritating tickle of a cough.

Gymnema Sylvestre is a vine native to Central & South India. Used in traditional Indian medicine since the 6th century BC, the leaves of this plant contain ‘gymnemic acids’ that have the amazing ability to slow down the transport of glucose from the intestines to the bloodstream. Some scientists even believe that Gymnema Sylvestre extract can help repair and regenerate pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin!
As you might expect from an herb like basil it has a pretty profound effect on the digestive system and therefore works great for treating things like indigestion, bloating, and gas. When you're using basil to treat these problems I'd recommend taking around 2-4 grams per day taken orally. Basil can also be used to ease the effects of insect bites and stings, simply crush the leaves so the juices can be applied to the affected area. To help from getting bit or stung in the first place you can rub the juice on the skin in the same manner, basil works rather well as an insecticide so this should help repel the bugs.
Epigenetic disregulation. This claim uses research into the mechanism of epigenetics to understand how mutations in the epigenetic machinery of cells will altered histone acetylation patterns to create cancer epigenetics. DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer.[42][43] If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA replication due to error-prone translesion synthesis. Excess DNA damage can also increase epigenetic alterations due to errors during DNA repair.[44][45] Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms).
You don’t usually think of pineapple as a cough remedy, but that’s probably because you’ve never heard of bromelain. There’s evidence to suggest that bromelain — an enzyme found only in the stem and fruit of pineapples — can help suppress coughs as well as loosen the mucus in your throat. To enjoy the most benefits of pineapple and bromelain, eat a slice of pineapple or drink 3.5 ounces of fresh pineapple juice three times a day.
Other research conducted at the same institute studied possible regeneration of the islets of langerhans in rats that were made diabetic for the study and then given gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts. The diabetic rats were able to double the number of their islets and beta cell numbers. Researchers felt that the herbal therapy was able to bring blood sugar stability by repairing the pancreas and increasing insulin secretion.
^ Vickers A, Zollman C, Payne DK (October 2001). "Hypnosis and relaxation therapies". West. J. Med. 175 (4): 269–72. doi:10.1136/ewjm.175.4.269. PMC 1071579. PMID 11577062. Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, particularly that related to stressful situations, such as receiving chemotherapy.
Important. Please Read: This website is for the presentation of the historical uses of herbs and it’s contents are for informational purposes only. Never take any herb or health supplement without first consulting your doctor. Never take any herb or supplement without your doctor’s consent if you are pregnant, nursing or trying to get pregnant. Never give herbs or health supplements to children without first talking to their doctor. The statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the FDA. The herbs and supplements mentioned are not intended to cure, treat, diagnose or prevent disease. Always play it safe.

However, patients who use alternative treatments have a poorer survival time, even after controlling for type and stage of disease.[17] In 2017, researchers at Yale School of Medicine published a paper which suggested that people who choose alternative medicine over conventional cancer treatments were more than twice as likely to die within five years of diagnosis. And specifically, in those with breast cancer, people choosing alternative medicine were 5.68 times more likely to die within five years.[18]
Since herbs are food, there are generally no dangerous side effects of using them in there natural state. If they are herbal extracts, they are more potent then the raw herb and should be taken in smaller doses to get the desired effects. Some herbs have a cleansing and detoxifying effect on the body and can cause diarrhea and nausea if taken in large quantity. Don’t worry. It’s good to cleanse the body of toxins. Just start off slowly and you’ll get the best long term results.
There are times when it might be smarter to use an herbal remedy than a pharmaceutical. For example, sometimes an herb offers a safer alternative. Take chamomile: The flowers have been used for centuries as a gentle calmative for young and old alike. It's non-habit-forming and well tolerated, and a study sponsored by the University of Michigan found that chamomile extract had roughly the same efficacy as many prescription sleeping medications when given to adults with insomnia. Likewise, peppermint oil has been shown to be as effective as pharmaceutical drugs for relieving irritable bowel syndrome, but without the ofttimes dangerous side effects. And clinical studies have shown that ginger relieves morning sickness, sage can relieve a sore throat, and hibiscus tea gently lowers blood pressure.
My mom started following an all-natural plan that included vegetable juicing, probiotic foods, immune-boosting supplements, stress reducing techniques and prayer.  And after only four months, the tumors on her lungs had shrunk significantly and one year after that, she was again diagnosed as being “cancer-free” and healthy. It’s now been 10 years and my mom recently turned 60 years old — and she is in the best shape of her life, regularly water skiing, running and still going strong.
Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea) is used in Native American and North American traditional folk herbal medicine. It is an immune system and lymphatic system booster. It's often combined with antimicrobial goldenseal to create an immune powerhouse. Dry mouth or lack of saliva can be treated with Echinacea. It's used in powder or tincture form. Some people may suffer from side-effects or allergic reactions. Some prescription drugs can interact with echinacea, so check with your doctor or medical professional before taking.
Chemical compounds in plants mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs; thus herbal medicines do not differ greatly from conventional drugs in terms of how they work. This enables herbal medicines to be as effective as conventional medicines, but also gives them the same potential to cause harmful side effects.[1][2]

A critical question is often asked: Why pursue the phenotypic reversion of malignancy? Surely it is better to look for more efficient methods of killing tumor cells? Tumors are remarkable creatures, possessed of manifold means to defeat the arsenal of therapeutics arrayed against them. Among other things, the genomic instability of tumors gives them a persistent evolutionary advantage, ensuring the survival of stronger, fitter, more aggressive cells that will go on to populate the body of their host. The approaches that have been taken show that it is possible to revert the malignant phenotype by the correction of environmental cues and by the normalization of signal transduction pathways even as the genome remains malignant and unstable. In this sense, the microenvironment can be dominant over the malignant genotype. It is of course preferable to eradicate the tumor altogether, but aggressive chemotherapy to eradicate a tumor often kills the host. The malleable nature of tumors would indicate that multiple approaches may be necessary. This raises the possibility of the long-term management of some cancers as a chronic condition in which the malignant potential of the tumor cells is constrained, perhaps for the lifetime of the patient. 
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